Abstract

A two-loop-based low-coherence multiplexing fiber-optic sensor network is proposed and demonstrated. It greatly extends the multiplexing capacity of this kind of sensor. A practical implementation of this scheme uses a popular amplified spontaneous emission light source and standard single-mode fiber, which are commonly used in the communications industry. The sensor's two-loop topology is completely passive. Absolute length measurements can be obtained for each sensing fiber segment for use in measuring the quasi-distribution strain or temperature. For large-scale smart structures this technique not only extends the multiplexing potential but also provides a redundancy for the sensing system. This means that the two-loop sensor network can break down at several points and the sensing system will still work even if some of the embedded two-loop sensors have been destroyed. The robustness of the nine-sensor two-loop sensing network is investigated and discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2002

L. Yuan, W. Jin, L. Zhou, Y. H. Hoo, and S. M. Demokan, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Yuan, L. Zhou, W. Jin, and J. Yang, Opt. Lett. 27, 894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 168, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

L. Yuan and F. Ansari, Sens. Actuators, A 63, 177 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. Inaudi, S. Vurpillot, and S. Lloret, Proc. SPIE 2718, 251 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 917 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

V. Gusmeroli, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey and W. W. Morey, Electron. Lett. 29, 112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ache, H. J.

Al-Chalabi, S. A.

S. A. Al-Chalabi, B. Culshaw, and D. E. N. Davies, in 1st International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1983), pp. 132–135.

Ansari, F.

L. Yuan and F. Ansari, Sens. Actuators, A 63, 177 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baney, D. M.

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 917 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, J. L.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Burck, J.

Culshaw, B.

S. A. Al-Chalabi, B. Culshaw, and D. E. N. Davies, in 1st International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1983), pp. 132–135.

Davies, D. E. N.

S. A. Al-Chalabi, B. Culshaw, and D. E. N. Davies, in 1st International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1983), pp. 132–135.

Demokan, S. M.

L. Yuan, W. Jin, L. Zhou, Y. H. Hoo, and S. M. Demokan, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duck, G.

Gusmeroli, V.

V. Gusmeroli, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoo, Y. H.

L. Yuan, W. Jin, L. Zhou, Y. H. Hoo, and S. M. Demokan, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inaudi, D.

D. Inaudi, S. Vurpillot, and S. Lloret, Proc. SPIE 2718, 251 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 168, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

L. Yuan, L. Zhou, W. Jin, and J. Yang, Opt. Lett. 27, 894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Yuan, W. Jin, L. Zhou, Y. H. Hoo, and S. M. Demokan, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Yuan, L. Zhou, and W. Jin, Opt. Lett. 25, 1074 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey and W. W. Morey, Electron. Lett. 29, 112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lecoeuche, V.

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 168, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lloret, S.

D. Inaudi, S. Vurpillot, and S. Lloret, Proc. SPIE 2718, 251 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

A. D. Kersey and W. W. Morey, Electron. Lett. 29, 112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohn, M. M.

Pannell, C. N.

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 168, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sensfelder, E.

Shaw, H. J.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sorin, W. V.

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 917 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vurpillot, S.

D. Inaudi, S. Vurpillot, and S. Lloret, Proc. SPIE 2718, 251 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 168, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wentworth, R. H.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Youngquist, R. C.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

L. Yuan, W. Jin, L. Zhou, Y. H. Hoo, and S. M. Demokan, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Yuan, L. Zhou, W. Jin, and J. Yang, Opt. Lett. 27, 894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Yuan, L. Zhou, and W. Jin, Opt. Lett. 25, 1074 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Yuan and L. Zhou, Appl. Opt. 37, 4168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Yuan and F. Ansari, Sens. Actuators, A 63, 177 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

Electron. Lett.

A. D. Kersey and W. W. Morey, Electron. Lett. 29, 112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

L. Yuan, W. Jin, L. Zhou, Y. H. Hoo, and S. M. Demokan, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 917 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

V. Gusmeroli, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 168, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

D. Inaudi, S. Vurpillot, and S. Lloret, Proc. SPIE 2718, 251 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators, A

L. Yuan and F. Ansari, Sens. Actuators, A 63, 177 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. A. Al-Chalabi, B. Culshaw, and D. E. N. Davies, in 1st International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1983), pp. 132–135.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-loop topologies: (a) Sagnac–resonator loop in series, (b) Sagnac–Sagnac loop in series, (c) resonator–Sagnac loop in series, (d) resonator–resonator loop in series, (e) Sagnac–resonator loop in parallel, (f) resonator–resonator loop in parallel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-loop fiber-optic sensor network in series. PD, photodiode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of nine fiber-optic sensors and five experimental breaking points arranged in two loops.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output signal variation after the two-loop system breaks at (a) point P 1 , (b) point P 2 , and (c) point P 3 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output signal variation after the two-loop system breaks at two points: (a) points P 1 and P 2 , (b) points P 3 and P 4 , and (c) points P 3 and P 5 .

Equations (3)

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n 0 l 0 + X k = n 0 l k ,
Δ X k = Δ ( n 0 l k ) .
l i l j l i l j L c l i l j D s , i j for any i , j ,

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