Abstract

A powerful method for the production of reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates is described based on the scaling properties of glass rods when drawn into fibers. The fabrication process involves chemically eroding the cleaved tips of drawn silica imaging fibers and then coating them with silver. For an appropriate choice of final diameter the drawn and eroded tips show clearly defined and regular triangular formations on a scale of approximately 80nm. The favorable SERS properties of these structures have been demonstrated by the observation of enhancement factors of approximately 106.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. R. Lewis and H. G. M. Edwards, eds., Handbook of Raman Spectroscopy (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001).
  2. G. C. Schatz and R. P. Van Duyne, in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, New York, 2002), pp. 759–774.
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    [Crossref]
  4. C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. J. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, Anal. Chem. 76, 78 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 99, 2957 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Kahl, E. Voges, S. Kostrewa, C. Viets, and W. Hill, Sens. Actuators B 51, 285 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 5599 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Chan, S. Kwon, T.-W. Koo, L. P. Lee, and A. A. Berlin, Adv. Mater. 15, 1595 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Viets and W. Hill, Internet J. Vib. Spectrosc. 4, (2000), http://www.ijvs.com.
  10. T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 943 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  11. E. Polwart, R. L. Keir, C. M. Davidson, W. E. Smith, and D. A. Sadler, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 522 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Vo-Dinh, TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 17, 557 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, Anal. Chem. 63, 2196 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. L. Stokes and T. Vo-Dinh, Sens. Actuators B 69, 28 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. D. Bernhard, S. Mall, and P. Pantano, Anal. Chem. 73, 2484 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. D. Kraus and D. A. Fleisch, Electromagnetics with Applications, 5th ed. (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1999), p. 617.
  17. P. E. Laibinis, G. M. Whitesides, D. L. Allara, Y.-T. Tao, A. N. Parikh, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7152 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 4, 527 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. A. V. Whitney, B. D. Myers, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nano Lett. 4, 1507 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2004 (3)

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. J. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, Anal. Chem. 76, 78 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 4, 527 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Whitney, B. D. Myers, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nano Lett. 4, 1507 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Chan, S. Kwon, T.-W. Koo, L. P. Lee, and A. A. Berlin, Adv. Mater. 15, 1595 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Vo-Dinh, L. R. Allain, and D. L. Stokes, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 511 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 5599 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. D. Bernhard, S. Mall, and P. Pantano, Anal. Chem. 73, 2484 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

D. L. Stokes and T. Vo-Dinh, Sens. Actuators B 69, 28 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Viets and W. Hill, Internet J. Vib. Spectrosc. 4, (2000), http://www.ijvs.com.

T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 943 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Polwart, R. L. Keir, C. M. Davidson, W. E. Smith, and D. A. Sadler, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 522 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 99, 2957 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. Kahl, E. Voges, S. Kostrewa, C. Viets, and W. Hill, Sens. Actuators B 51, 285 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Vo-Dinh, TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 17, 557 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, Anal. Chem. 63, 2196 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. E. Laibinis, G. M. Whitesides, D. L. Allara, Y.-T. Tao, A. N. Parikh, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7152 (1991).
[Crossref]

Allain, L. R.

T. Vo-Dinh, L. R. Allain, and D. L. Stokes, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 511 (2002).
[Crossref]

Allara, D. L.

P. E. Laibinis, G. M. Whitesides, D. L. Allara, Y.-T. Tao, A. N. Parikh, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7152 (1991).
[Crossref]

Berlin, A. A.

S. Chan, S. Kwon, T.-W. Koo, L. P. Lee, and A. A. Berlin, Adv. Mater. 15, 1595 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bernhard, D. D.

D. D. Bernhard, S. Mall, and P. Pantano, Anal. Chem. 73, 2484 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carron, K. T.

K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, Anal. Chem. 63, 2196 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chan, S.

S. Chan, S. Kwon, T.-W. Koo, L. P. Lee, and A. A. Berlin, Adv. Mater. 15, 1595 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 99, 2957 (1999).
[Crossref]

Davidson, C. M.

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 99, 2957 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fleisch, D. A.

J. D. Kraus and D. A. Fleisch, Electromagnetics with Applications, 5th ed. (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1999), p. 617.

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 4, 527 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haynes, C. L.

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. J. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, Anal. Chem. 76, 78 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 5599 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hill, W.

C. Viets and W. Hill, Internet J. Vib. Spectrosc. 4, (2000), http://www.ijvs.com.

M. Kahl, E. Voges, S. Kostrewa, C. Viets, and W. Hill, Sens. Actuators B 51, 285 (1998).
[Crossref]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 99, 2957 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kahl, M.

M. Kahl, E. Voges, S. Kostrewa, C. Viets, and W. Hill, Sens. Actuators B 51, 285 (1998).
[Crossref]

Keir, R. L.

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 99, 2957 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 99, 2957 (1999).
[Crossref]

Koo, T.-W.

S. Chan, S. Kwon, T.-W. Koo, L. P. Lee, and A. A. Berlin, Adv. Mater. 15, 1595 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kostrewa, S.

M. Kahl, E. Voges, S. Kostrewa, C. Viets, and W. Hill, Sens. Actuators B 51, 285 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kraus, J. D.

J. D. Kraus and D. A. Fleisch, Electromagnetics with Applications, 5th ed. (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1999), p. 617.

Kronfeldt, H.-D.

T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 943 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.

S. Chan, S. Kwon, T.-W. Koo, L. P. Lee, and A. A. Berlin, Adv. Mater. 15, 1595 (2003).
[Crossref]

Laibinis, P. E.

P. E. Laibinis, G. M. Whitesides, D. L. Allara, Y.-T. Tao, A. N. Parikh, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7152 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lee, L. P.

S. Chan, S. Kwon, T.-W. Koo, L. P. Lee, and A. A. Berlin, Adv. Mater. 15, 1595 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lucht, S.

T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 943 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mall, S.

D. D. Bernhard, S. Mall, and P. Pantano, Anal. Chem. 73, 2484 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mullen, K. I.

K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, Anal. Chem. 63, 2196 (1991).
[Crossref]

Murphy, T.

T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 943 (2000).
[Crossref]

Myers, B. D.

A. V. Whitney, B. D. Myers, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nano Lett. 4, 1507 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nuzzo, R. G.

P. E. Laibinis, G. M. Whitesides, D. L. Allara, Y.-T. Tao, A. N. Parikh, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7152 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pantano, P.

D. D. Bernhard, S. Mall, and P. Pantano, Anal. Chem. 73, 2484 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parikh, A. N.

P. E. Laibinis, G. M. Whitesides, D. L. Allara, Y.-T. Tao, A. N. Parikh, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7152 (1991).
[Crossref]

Polwart, E.

Sadler, D. A.

Schatz, G. C.

G. C. Schatz and R. P. Van Duyne, in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, New York, 2002), pp. 759–774.

Schmidt, H.

T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 943 (2000).
[Crossref]

Smith, W. E.

Stokes, D. L.

T. Vo-Dinh, L. R. Allain, and D. L. Stokes, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 511 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. L. Stokes and T. Vo-Dinh, Sens. Actuators B 69, 28 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y.-T.

P. E. Laibinis, G. M. Whitesides, D. L. Allara, Y.-T. Tao, A. N. Parikh, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7152 (1991).
[Crossref]

Van Duyne, R. P.

A. V. Whitney, B. D. Myers, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nano Lett. 4, 1507 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 4, 527 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. J. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, Anal. Chem. 76, 78 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 5599 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. C. Schatz and R. P. Van Duyne, in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, New York, 2002), pp. 759–774.

Viets, C.

C. Viets and W. Hill, Internet J. Vib. Spectrosc. 4, (2000), http://www.ijvs.com.

M. Kahl, E. Voges, S. Kostrewa, C. Viets, and W. Hill, Sens. Actuators B 51, 285 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vo-Dinh, T.

T. Vo-Dinh, L. R. Allain, and D. L. Stokes, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 511 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. L. Stokes and T. Vo-Dinh, Sens. Actuators B 69, 28 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Vo-Dinh, TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 17, 557 (1998).
[Crossref]

Voges, E.

M. Kahl, E. Voges, S. Kostrewa, C. Viets, and W. Hill, Sens. Actuators B 51, 285 (1998).
[Crossref]

Walsh, J. T. J.

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. J. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, Anal. Chem. 76, 78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Whitesides, G. M.

P. E. Laibinis, G. M. Whitesides, D. L. Allara, Y.-T. Tao, A. N. Parikh, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7152 (1991).
[Crossref]

Whitney, A. V.

A. V. Whitney, B. D. Myers, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nano Lett. 4, 1507 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yonzon, C. R.

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. J. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, Anal. Chem. 76, 78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. J. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, Anal. Chem. 76, 78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Chan, S. Kwon, T.-W. Koo, L. P. Lee, and A. A. Berlin, Adv. Mater. 15, 1595 (2003).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (3)

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. J. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, Anal. Chem. 76, 78 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, Anal. Chem. 63, 2196 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. D. Bernhard, S. Mall, and P. Pantano, Anal. Chem. 73, 2484 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) (1)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 99, 2957 (1999).
[Crossref]

Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. (1)

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 4, 527 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Internet J. Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

C. Viets and W. Hill, Internet J. Vib. Spectrosc. 4, (2000), http://www.ijvs.com.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

P. E. Laibinis, G. M. Whitesides, D. L. Allara, Y.-T. Tao, A. N. Parikh, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7152 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 5599 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

T. Vo-Dinh, L. R. Allain, and D. L. Stokes, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 511 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 943 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. V. Whitney, B. D. Myers, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nano Lett. 4, 1507 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B (2)

D. L. Stokes and T. Vo-Dinh, Sens. Actuators B 69, 28 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Kahl, E. Voges, S. Kostrewa, C. Viets, and W. Hill, Sens. Actuators B 51, 285 (1998).
[Crossref]

TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. (1)

T. Vo-Dinh, TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 17, 557 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. D. Kraus and D. A. Fleisch, Electromagnetics with Applications, 5th ed. (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1999), p. 617.

I. R. Lewis and H. G. M. Edwards, eds., Handbook of Raman Spectroscopy (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001).

G. C. Schatz and R. P. Van Duyne, in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, New York, 2002), pp. 759–774.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Imaging fiber tip after 1 - min etch.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detail of etched honeycomb pattern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM image taken at an angle of 30° showing nanoscale structures between wells.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SERS spectra of thiophenol after (a) 1 - min etch and (b) 2 - min etch.

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