Abstract

Light-extinction measurements in the wavelength range of 400to1000nm are performed in situ on Bacillus subtilis endospores during heat-shock-induced activation. Simultaneous information on particle size and refractive indices during activation is calculated from the transmission spectra by use of the Gaussian ray approximation of anomalous diffraction theory. During activation the refractive index of the core decreases from 1.51 to 1.39, and the size increases from 0.38to0.6μm.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. L. Koch and E. Ehrenfeld, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 165, 262 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  6. A. D. Molina-Garcia, S. E. Harding, L. de Pieri, N. Jan, and W. M. Waites, Biochem. J. 263, 883 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  7. A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, R. B. Rosen, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. SPIE 4965, 73 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Alimova, A. Katz, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, G. Minko, D. V. Will, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 42, 4080 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Xu, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 28, 179 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Xu, Appl. Opt. 42, 6710 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. S. J. Foster and K. Johnstone, in Regulation of Procariotic Development. Structural and Functional Analysis of Bacterial Sporulation and Germination, I. Smith, R. A. Slepecky, and P. Setlow, eds. (American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 89.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]

2003 (5)

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, R. B. Rosen, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. SPIE 4965, 73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Alimova, A. Katz, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, G. Minko, D. V. Will, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 42, 4080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 28, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu, Appl. Opt. 42, 6710 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

B. Setlow, E. Melly, and P. Setlow, J. Bacteriol. 183, 4894 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Driks, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 63, 1 (1999).
[PubMed]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

P. Chylek and J. Li, Opt. Commun. 117, 389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. D. Molina-Garcia, S. E. Harding, L. de Pieri, N. Jan, and W. M. Waites, Biochem. J. 263, 883 (1989).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

S. E. Harding and P. Johnson, Biochem. J. 220, 117 (1984).
[PubMed]

1971 (1)

D. Dubnau, Methods Enzymol. 21, 430 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

P. J. Wyatt, Nature 221, 1257 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

A. L. Koch and E. Ehrenfeld, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 165, 262 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, R. B. Rosen, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. SPIE 4965, 73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Alimova, A. Katz, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, G. Minko, D. V. Will, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 42, 4080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 28, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alimova, A.

A. Alimova, A. Katz, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, G. Minko, D. V. Will, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 42, 4080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, R. B. Rosen, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. SPIE 4965, 73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, E. T.

Chylek, P.

P. Chylek and J. Li, Opt. Commun. 117, 389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Pieri, L.

A. D. Molina-Garcia, S. E. Harding, L. de Pieri, N. Jan, and W. M. Waites, Biochem. J. 263, 883 (1989).
[PubMed]

Driks, A.

A. Driks, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 63, 1 (1999).
[PubMed]

Dubnau, D.

D. Dubnau, Methods Enzymol. 21, 430 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ehrenfeld, E.

A. L. Koch and E. Ehrenfeld, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 165, 262 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, S. J.

S. J. Foster and K. Johnstone, in Regulation of Procariotic Development. Structural and Functional Analysis of Bacterial Sporulation and Germination, I. Smith, R. A. Slepecky, and P. Setlow, eds. (American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 89.

Fournier, G.

Harding, S. E.

A. D. Molina-Garcia, S. E. Harding, L. de Pieri, N. Jan, and W. M. Waites, Biochem. J. 263, 883 (1989).
[PubMed]

S. E. Harding and P. Johnson, Biochem. J. 220, 117 (1984).
[PubMed]

Jan, N.

A. D. Molina-Garcia, S. E. Harding, L. de Pieri, N. Jan, and W. M. Waites, Biochem. J. 263, 883 (1989).
[PubMed]

Johnson, P.

S. E. Harding and P. Johnson, Biochem. J. 220, 117 (1984).
[PubMed]

Johnstone, K.

S. J. Foster and K. Johnstone, in Regulation of Procariotic Development. Structural and Functional Analysis of Bacterial Sporulation and Germination, I. Smith, R. A. Slepecky, and P. Setlow, eds. (American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 89.

Jonasz, M.

Katz, A.

A. Alimova, A. Katz, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, G. Minko, D. V. Will, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 42, 4080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, R. B. Rosen, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. SPIE 4965, 73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khare, B. N.

Koch, A. L.

A. L. Koch and E. Ehrenfeld, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 165, 262 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lax, M.

Li, J.

P. Chylek and J. Li, Opt. Commun. 117, 389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, S. A.

A. Alimova, A. Katz, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, G. Minko, D. V. Will, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 42, 4080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Melly, E.

B. Setlow, E. Melly, and P. Setlow, J. Bacteriol. 183, 4894 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milham, M. E.

Minko, G.

Molina-Garcia, A. D.

A. D. Molina-Garcia, S. E. Harding, L. de Pieri, N. Jan, and W. M. Waites, Biochem. J. 263, 883 (1989).
[PubMed]

Querry, M. R.

Rosen, R.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. B.

Rudolph, E.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Savage, H. E.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, R. B. Rosen, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. SPIE 4965, 73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Alimova, A. Katz, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, G. Minko, D. V. Will, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 42, 4080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Setlow, B.

B. Setlow, E. Melly, and P. Setlow, J. Bacteriol. 183, 4894 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Setlow, P.

B. Setlow, E. Melly, and P. Setlow, J. Bacteriol. 183, 4894 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, M.

A. Alimova, A. Katz, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, G. Minko, D. V. Will, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 42, 4080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, R. B. Rosen, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. SPIE 4965, 73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

Tuminello, P. S.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

Waites, W. M.

A. D. Molina-Garcia, S. E. Harding, L. de Pieri, N. Jan, and W. M. Waites, Biochem. J. 263, 883 (1989).
[PubMed]

Will, D. V.

Wrobel, J. M.

Wyatt, P. J.

P. J. Wyatt, Nature 221, 1257 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, R. B. Rosen, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. SPIE 4965, 73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu, Appl. Opt. 42, 6710 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 28, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Biochem. J. (2)

S. E. Harding and P. Johnson, Biochem. J. 220, 117 (1984).
[PubMed]

A. D. Molina-Garcia, S. E. Harding, L. de Pieri, N. Jan, and W. M. Waites, Biochem. J. 263, 883 (1989).
[PubMed]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

A. L. Koch and E. Ehrenfeld, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 165, 262 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Bacteriol. (1)

B. Setlow, E. Melly, and P. Setlow, J. Bacteriol. 183, 4894 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods Enzymol. (1)

D. Dubnau, Methods Enzymol. 21, 430 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (1)

A. Driks, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 63, 1 (1999).
[PubMed]

Nature (1)

P. J. Wyatt, Nature 221, 1257 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Chylek and J. Li, Opt. Commun. 117, 389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, H. E. Savage, M. Shah, R. B. Rosen, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. SPIE 4965, 73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

S. J. Foster and K. Johnstone, in Regulation of Procariotic Development. Structural and Functional Analysis of Bacterial Sporulation and Germination, I. Smith, R. A. Slepecky, and P. Setlow, eds. (American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 89.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Light extinction as a function of wavelength plotted for spores before heat shock and at t = 1 min , 30 min , 1 h , 2 h , and 6 h after heat shock (dashed curves). The least-squares fit to K = C 2 λ 2 + C 4 λ 4 is shown for each spectrum (solid curves).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Least-squares fit coefficients C 2 and C 4 plotted as a function of time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ES radius plotted as a function of time after heat shock. The radius was calculated by three methods: (1) from C 2 and C 4 assuming a uniform sphere (i.e., without a spore coat), (2) a uniform sphere with n = 1.39 , and (3) two concentric spheres with the outer sphere (spore coat) dissolving as described in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ES refractive index calculated for uniform spheres (no coat) and two concentric spheres with the outer sphere (spore coat) dissolving as described in the text.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C s = π r 2 [ 4 n 2 π 2 λ 2 ( m 1 ) 2 ( μ 2 σ 2 ) 4 n 4 π 4 3 λ 4 ( m 1 ) 4 ( μ 4 + 3 σ 4 + 6 μ 2 σ 2 ) ] ,
K = C s N L = π r 2 ( 4 n 2 π 2 λ 2 α r 2 16 n 4 π 4 λ 4 β r 4 12 ) N L ,
α 2 ( m 1 ) 2 , β 460 81 ( m 1 ) 4 .
K = C 2 λ 2 + C 4 λ 4
l = 2 ( m o 1 ) ( r o 2 h 2 ) 1 2 + 2 ( m i m o ) ( r i 2 h 2 ) 1 2 , h < r i
= 2 ( m o 1 ) ( r o 2 h 2 ) 1 2 , h > r i ,
α 2 ( m i 1 ) 2 8 ( m i 1 ) ( m i m o ) ε + ,
β 460 81 ( m i 1 ) 4 544 27 ( m i m o ) [ ( m i 1 ) 3 2 ( m i m o ) 3 ] ε + ,

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