Abstract

To reduce interface loss between optical fibers and devices in telecommunication systems, the development of an optical-fiber-based device that can be fused directly with fibers is important. A novel optical modulator consisting of a bare fiber core surrounded by magnetic fluids instead of by a SiO2 cladding layer is proposed. Applying a magnetic field raises the refractive index of the magnetic fluid. Thus we can control the occurrence of total reflection at the interface between the fiber core and the magnetic fluid when light propagates along the fiber. As a result, the intensity of the outgoing light is modulated by variation in field strength. Details of the design, fabrication, and working properties of such a modulator are presented.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

Y. H. Qi, P. Desjardins, X. S. Meng, and Z. Y. Wang, Opt. Mater 21, 255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and N. A. Riza, Opt. Commun. 205, 77 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

K. Hirabayashi, M. Wada, and C. Amano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.-E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

F. Donatini, D. Jamon, J. Monin, and S. Neveu, IEEE Trans. Magn. 35, 4311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza and S. Sumriddetchkajorn, Opt. Lett. 24, 282 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S.-L. Chia, AMP J. Technol. 5, 19 (1996).

1990 (1)

A. Benner, H. M. Presby, and N. Amitay, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

P. Davies, J. Popplewell, and J. P. Llewellyn, IEEE Trans. Magn. 24, 1662 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Amano, C.

K. Hirabayashi, M. Wada, and C. Amano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amitay, N.

A. Benner, H. M. Presby, and N. Amitay, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Benner, A.

A. Benner, H. M. Presby, and N. Amitay, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chia, S.-L.

S.-L. Chia, AMP J. Technol. 5, 19 (1996).

Chin, T.-S.

T.-S. Chin, Handbook of Magnetic Technologies (Taiwan Association for Magnetic Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, 2003).

Davies, P.

P. Davies, J. Popplewell, and J. P. Llewellyn, IEEE Trans. Magn. 24, 1662 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, P.

Y. H. Qi, P. Desjardins, X. S. Meng, and Z. Y. Wang, Opt. Mater 21, 255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Donatini, F.

F. Donatini, D. Jamon, J. Monin, and S. Neveu, IEEE Trans. Magn. 35, 4311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, K.

K. Hirabayashi, M. Wada, and C. Amano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-Y.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H. E.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H.-E.

H.-E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jamon, D.

F. Donatini, D. Jamon, J. Monin, and S. Neveu, IEEE Trans. Magn. 35, 4311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

H.-E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Q.

Llewellyn, J. P.

P. Davies, J. Popplewell, and J. P. Llewellyn, IEEE Trans. Magn. 24, 1662 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Meng, X. S.

Y. H. Qi, P. Desjardins, X. S. Meng, and Z. Y. Wang, Opt. Mater 21, 255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Monin, J.

F. Donatini, D. Jamon, J. Monin, and S. Neveu, IEEE Trans. Magn. 35, 4311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neveu, S.

F. Donatini, D. Jamon, J. Monin, and S. Neveu, IEEE Trans. Magn. 35, 4311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popplewell, J.

P. Davies, J. Popplewell, and J. P. Llewellyn, IEEE Trans. Magn. 24, 1662 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

A. Benner, H. M. Presby, and N. Amitay, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Qi, Y. H.

Y. H. Qi, P. Desjardins, X. S. Meng, and Z. Y. Wang, Opt. Mater 21, 255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and N. A. Riza, Opt. Commun. 205, 77 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza and S. Sumriddetchkajorn, Opt. Lett. 24, 282 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sumriddetchkajorn, S.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and N. A. Riza, Opt. Commun. 205, 77 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza and S. Sumriddetchkajorn, Opt. Lett. 24, 282 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tse, W. S.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wada, M.

K. Hirabayashi, M. Wada, and C. Amano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. Y.

Y. H. Qi, P. Desjardins, X. S. Meng, and Z. Y. Wang, Opt. Mater 21, 255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. C.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. M.

AMP J. Technol. (1)

S.-L. Chia, AMP J. Technol. 5, 19 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H.-E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Hirabayashi, M. Wada, and C. Amano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (2)

P. Davies, J. Popplewell, and J. P. Llewellyn, IEEE Trans. Magn. 24, 1662 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Donatini, D. Jamon, J. Monin, and S. Neveu, IEEE Trans. Magn. 35, 4311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, and C. Lu, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Benner, H. M. Presby, and N. Amitay, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and N. A. Riza, Opt. Commun. 205, 77 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater (1)

Y. H. Qi, P. Desjardins, X. S. Meng, and Z. Y. Wang, Opt. Mater 21, 255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T.-S. Chin, Handbook of Magnetic Technologies (Taiwan Association for Magnetic Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Concentration-dependent refractive index nMFMs of magnetic fluid in a zero field at T=24.3 °C. (b) Magnetic-field-dependent refractive index nMFH of a magnetic fluid film. Light with wavelengths of 632.8 and 1.557 µm was used for both (a) and (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the working principle of our optical-fiber magnetic-fluid modulator. Total reflection (a) occurs at zero field and (b) vanishes when an external field is applied. W is the length of the bar-core section. I0 and IH, intensities transmitted through the modulator at zero and nonzero fields, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the optical-fiber magnetic-fluid modulator. There are separate sections of bare cores; their images, taken by an optical microscope, are shown in (b)–(d). The middle section is sealed in a capillary field with magnetic fluid. External magnetic fluid is applied perpendicularly to the fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real-time variation in (a) applied magnetic fields and (b) transmission loss of the optical-fiber magnetic-fluid modulator in various fields.

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