Abstract

A new technique for achieving efficient Čerenkov-type second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a nonlinear-optical (NLO) polymer waveguide is presented. The configuration, which can prevent the losses of light caused by relatively long-distance propagation and the multiple reflections that appear in the conventional Čerenkov technique, exhibits ease of fabrication and compactness. We experimentally observed a conversion efficiency of 1.6% W-1 cm-1, which to our knowledge is the highest value reported for Čerenkov SHG in polymer, by tuning both the thickness and the refractive index of the polymer film close to phase matching between a guided fundamental wave and a guided harmonic wave. The experimental results agreed well with the theoretical prediction.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. N. A. Sanford and J. M. Connors, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1429 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Chikuma and S. Umegaki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 768 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Kot?cka and J. ?tyroký, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 541 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, J. ?tyroký, and L. Kot?cka, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 299 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

L. Kot?cka and J. ?tyroký, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. ?tyroký and L. Kot?cka, Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

R. S. Chang and S. Y. Shaw, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, and K. Thyagarajan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

T. Doumuki, H. Tamada, and M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3533 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

M. J. Li, M. De Micheli, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Chikuma and S. Umegaki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 768 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

N. A. Sanford and J. M. Connors, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1429 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Althoff, O.

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Benecke, C.

K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burzynski, R.

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. S.

R. S. Chang and S. Y. Shaw, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chikuma, K.

Connors, J. M.

N. A. Sanford and J. M. Connors, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1429 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ctyroký, J.

H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, J. ?tyroký, and L. Kot?cka, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 299 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Kot?cka and J. ?tyroký, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. ?tyroký and L. Kot?cka, Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M.

M. J. Li, M. De Micheli, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Doumuki, T.

T. Doumuki, H. Tamada, and M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3533 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Falk, U.

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hashizume, N.

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798 (1992).
[CrossRef]

He, Q.

M. J. Li, M. De Micheli, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hickel, W.

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

Ito, R.

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kamath, M.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kotacka, L.

H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, J. ?tyroký, and L. Kot?cka, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 299 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Kot?cka and J. ?tyroký, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. ?tyroký and L. Kot?cka, Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. J.

M. J. Li, M. De Micheli, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lupo, D.

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mahalakshmi, V.

V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, and K. Thyagarajan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

McBranch, D.

M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Menges, B.

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ogasawara, N.

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Onda, T.

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

M. J. Li, M. De Micheli, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, M.

T. Doumuki, H. Tamada, and M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3533 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, N. A.

N. A. Sanford and J. M. Connors, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1429 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scheunemann, U.

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, S. Y.

R. S. Chang and S. Y. Shaw, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shenoy, M. R.

V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, and K. Thyagarajan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, M.

M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B. P.

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tamada, H.

T. Doumuki, H. Tamada, and M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3533 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, and K. Thyagarajan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Umegaki, S.

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Chikuma and S. Umegaki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 768 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. Doumuki, H. Tamada, and M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3533 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, and K. Thyagarajan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Li, M. De Micheli, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

N. A. Sanford and J. M. Connors, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1429 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. S. Chang and S. Y. Shaw, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. ?tyroký and L. Kot?cka, Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Kot?cka and J. ?tyroký, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the prism–polymer waveguide coupling system and illustration of Čerenkov SHG based on the ray-optics treatment: n0=1.000, n1=1.510, n2=1.480, n3=1.882, n4=1.903.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement of Čerenkov SHG: M1, partially reflective mirror; L1, L2, lenses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Čerenkov conversion efficiency versus film thickness for several concentrations (wt. %) of DR1/PMMA for TM0ω and TM1ω modes. The calculation and the experimental results are represented by solid curves and filled triangles, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dispersion curves of the guided mode in the DR1/PMMA layer: dashed curves, fundamental guided modes; solid curves, harmonic guided modes. Pω=1.5 mW, L=2 mm, W=0.5 mm, d33=14 pm/V, n2ω=1.480, n22ω=1.496, n0ω=n02ω=1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Concentrations, Refractive Indices, Thicknesses, and Normalized Conversion Efficiencies of Seven Samples (DR1/PMMA) Used in Our Experiments

Equations (1)

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η=P2ω-P2ωPω-Pω2100L % W-1 cm-1,

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