Abstract

A novel mode transformer was fabricated that transforms a modal area by a factor of 100. Using the mode transformer improves the efficiency of mode transformation by an order of magnitude compared with that when no mode transformer is used. With this mode transformer, input–output coupling of miniaturized, on-chip integrated optical circuits to external optical fibers is achieved with low loss. The mode transformer’s design, fabricated in silicon, is scalable to virtually any waveguide size, facilitating continuous miniaturization in silicon optoelectronics.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Lee, D. Lim, L. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Brenner and H. Melchior, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1053 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Lee, K. Wada, D. Lim, and L. Kimerling, “Mode coupler between low index difference waveguide and high index difference waveguide,” U.S. patent6,631,225 (October7, 2003).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Brenner and H. Melchior, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1053 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V.

Brenner, T.

T. Brenner and H. Melchior, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1053 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

Fan, S.

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, J.

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E.

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J.

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, I.

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

K. Lee, D. Lim, L. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, K. Wada, D. Lim, and L. Kimerling, “Mode coupler between low index difference waveguide and high index difference waveguide,” U.S. patent6,631,225 (October7, 2003).

Lee, K.

K. Lee, D. Lim, L. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, K. Wada, D. Lim, and L. Kimerling, “Mode coupler between low index difference waveguide and high index difference waveguide,” U.S. patent6,631,225 (October7, 2003).

Lim, D.

K. Lee, D. Lim, L. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, K. Wada, D. Lim, and L. Kimerling, “Mode coupler between low index difference waveguide and high index difference waveguide,” U.S. patent6,631,225 (October7, 2003).

Lipson, M.

Melchior, H.

T. Brenner and H. Melchior, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1053 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R.

Shin, J.

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H.

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E.

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P.

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

K. Lee, K. Wada, D. Lim, and L. Kimerling, “Mode coupler between low index difference waveguide and high index difference waveguide,” U.S. patent6,631,225 (October7, 2003).

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Brenner and H. Melchior, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1053 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, I. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

K. Lee, K. Wada, D. Lim, and L. Kimerling, “Mode coupler between low index difference waveguide and high index difference waveguide,” U.S. patent6,631,225 (October7, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mode transformer for a high-index-difference waveguide. A taper in the high-index-difference waveguide core is shown with taper length L and tip width t.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of effective indices on waveguide width w. The effective indices of TE and TM polarization are plotted as functions of high-index-difference waveguide width w. Inset, the high-index-difference waveguide core is inside the low-index-difference core with n2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning-electron microscope picture of the high-index-difference waveguide taper. The 0.15µm tip width was achieved by CMOS photolithography.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transformation loss as a function of tip width in the mode transformer.

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