Abstract

We have developed a digital holographic microscope (DHM), in a transmission mode, especially dedicated to the quantitative visualization of phase objects such as living cells. The method is based on an original numerical algorithm presented in detail elsewhere [Cuche et al., Appl. Opt. 38, 6994 (1999)]. DHM images of living cells in culture are shown for what is to our knowledge the first time. They represent the distribution of the optical path length over the cell, which has been measured with subwavelength accuracy. These DHM images are compared with those obtained by use of the widely used phase contrast and Nomarski differential interference contrast techniques.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2002

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1999

1998

T. Zhang and I. Yamaguchi, Opt. Lett. 23, 1121 (1998).

1997

E. B. Van Munster, L. J. Van Vliet, and J. A. Aten, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 188, 149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Select. Top. Quant. Electron. 2, 898 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Farinas and A. S. Verkman, Biophys. J. 71, 3511 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

G. A. Dunn and D. Zicha, J. Cell Sci. 108, 1239 (1995).

1993

G. J. Brewer, J. R. Torricelli, E. K. Evege, and P. J. Price, J. Neurosci. Res. 35, 567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1955

G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9 (1955).

1942

F. Zernike, Physica 9, 686 (1942).
[CrossRef]

F. Zernike, Physica 9, 974 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Aten, J. A.

E. B. Van Munster, L. J. Van Vliet, and J. A. Aten, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 188, 149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bevilaqua, F.

Brewer, G. J.

G. J. Brewer, J. R. Torricelli, E. K. Evege, and P. J. Price, J. Neurosci. Res. 35, 567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Depeursinge, C.

Dubois, F.

Dunn, A.

A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Select. Top. Quant. Electron. 2, 898 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, G. A.

G. A. Dunn and D. Zicha, J. Cell Sci. 108, 1239 (1995).

Evege, E. K.

G. J. Brewer, J. R. Torricelli, E. K. Evege, and P. J. Price, J. Neurosci. Res. 35, 567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farinas, J.

J. Farinas and A. S. Verkman, Biophys. J. 71, 3511 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Indebetouw, G.

Joannes, L.

Jüptner, W. P. O.

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klysubun, P.

Legros, J.-C.

Marquet, P.

Massig, J. H.

Nomarski, G.

G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9 (1955).

Pawluczyk, R.

Pluta, M.

M. Pluta, Advanced Light Microscopy (Elsevier, New York, 1988), Vol. 2.

Price, P. J.

G. J. Brewer, J. R. Torricelli, E. K. Evege, and P. J. Price, J. Neurosci. Res. 35, 567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Select. Top. Quant. Electron. 2, 898 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stadelmaier, A.

Torricelli, J. R.

G. J. Brewer, J. R. Torricelli, E. K. Evege, and P. J. Price, J. Neurosci. Res. 35, 567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Munster, E. B.

E. B. Van Munster, L. J. Van Vliet, and J. A. Aten, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 188, 149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Vliet, L. J.

E. B. Van Munster, L. J. Van Vliet, and J. A. Aten, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 188, 149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verkman, A. S.

J. Farinas and A. S. Verkman, Biophys. J. 71, 3511 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, I.

T. Zhang and I. Yamaguchi, Opt. Lett. 23, 1121 (1998).

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, Physica 9, 686 (1942).
[CrossRef]

F. Zernike, Physica 9, 974 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang and I. Yamaguchi, Opt. Lett. 23, 1121 (1998).

Zicha, D.

G. A. Dunn and D. Zicha, J. Cell Sci. 108, 1239 (1995).

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

J. Farinas and A. S. Verkman, Biophys. J. 71, 3511 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quant. Electron.

A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Select. Top. Quant. Electron. 2, 898 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Cell Sci.

G. A. Dunn and D. Zicha, J. Cell Sci. 108, 1239 (1995).

J. Microsc. (Oxford)

E. B. Van Munster, L. J. Van Vliet, and J. A. Aten, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 188, 149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. Res.

G. J. Brewer, J. R. Torricelli, E. K. Evege, and P. J. Price, J. Neurosci. Res. 35, 567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Radium

G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9 (1955).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Physica

F. Zernike, Physica 9, 686 (1942).
[CrossRef]

F. Zernike, Physica 9, 974 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Pluta, Advanced Light Microscopy (Elsevier, New York, 1988), Vol. 2.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic configuration of the DHM. Inset, schematic representation of cultured cells mounted in a closed perfusion chamber. M, mirror. Other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of a living mouse cortical neuron in culture: A, dark PhC image; B, DIC image; C, raw image; D, perspective image in false colors of the phase distribution obtained with the DHM.

Equations (1)

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φi=2πλ0dinc,izdz+nmD-di=2πλnc,i¯-nmdi+nmD,

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