Abstract

We introduce a method with which to obtain accurately the bulk optical parameters of fresh biological tissues in vitro by combining measurements of the sample surface profiles, reflectance, and transmittances with Monte Carlo-based inverse calculations. The bulk optical parameters of fresh porcine dermis tissue were determined at eight wavelengths from 325 to 1557 nm and were found to be much different from those determined without consideration of surface roughness.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960).
  2. M. J. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Simulations of light scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the FDTD method,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
  4. B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, Med. Phys. 10, 824 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Q. Lu, X. H. Hu, and K. Dong, Appl. Opt. 39, 5890 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 246 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. A. Boas, Opt. Express 1, 404 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, Opt. Lett. 28, 2204 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of refractive indices of porcine skin tissues and Intralipid at eight wavelengths between 325 and 1557 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).
  10. J. M. Bennett and L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).
  11. X. Ma, “Study of optical properties of skin tissues from ultraviolet to short-wave infrared,” Ph.D. dissertation (East Carolina University, Greenville, N.C., 2004).
  12. J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995).
  13. X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. G. Aarnoudse, and W. G. Zijlstra, Appl. Opt. 32, 435 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Du, X. H. Hu, M. Cariveau, X. Ma, G. W. Kalmus, and J. Q. Lu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 167 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Suzuki, Y. Yamashita, K. Ohta, M. Kaneko, M. Yoshida, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 330 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, Opt. Lett. 28, 2204 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Du, X. H. Hu, M. Cariveau, X. Ma, G. W. Kalmus, and J. Q. Lu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 167 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1997 (3)

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, Opt. Express 1, 404 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Suzuki, Y. Yamashita, K. Ohta, M. Kaneko, M. Yoshida, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

M. J. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, Med. Phys. 10, 824 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Adam, G.

B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, Med. Phys. 10, 824 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. R.

B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett and L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Boas, D. A.

Brock, R. S.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J.

B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cahn, M.

B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cariveau, M.

Y. Du, X. H. Hu, M. Cariveau, X. Ma, G. W. Kalmus, and J. Q. Lu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 167 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

K. Suzuki, Y. Yamashita, K. Ohta, M. Kaneko, M. Yoshida, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960).

Coquoz, O.

B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dassel, A. C. M.

de Mul, F. F. M.

Ding, H.

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of refractive indices of porcine skin tissues and Intralipid at eight wavelengths between 325 and 1557 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Dong, K.

Du, Y.

Y. Du, X. H. Hu, M. Cariveau, X. Ma, G. W. Kalmus, and J. Q. Lu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 167 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishkin, J. B.

B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Graaff, R.

Gross, J. D.

B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. H.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, Opt. Lett. 28, 2204 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Du, X. H. Hu, M. Cariveau, X. Ma, G. W. Kalmus, and J. Q. Lu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 167 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Lu, X. H. Hu, and K. Dong, Appl. Opt. 39, 5890 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Simulations of light scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the FDTD method,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of refractive indices of porcine skin tissues and Intralipid at eight wavelengths between 325 and 1557 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Jacobs, K. M.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of refractive indices of porcine skin tissues and Intralipid at eight wavelengths between 325 and 1557 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Jacques, S. L.

M. J. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalmus, G. W.

Y. Du, X. H. Hu, M. Cariveau, X. Ma, G. W. Kalmus, and J. Q. Lu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 167 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaneko, M.

K. Suzuki, Y. Yamashita, K. Ohta, M. Kaneko, M. Yoshida, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Koelink, M. H.

Lu, J. Q.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, Opt. Lett. 28, 2204 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Du, X. H. Hu, M. Cariveau, X. Ma, G. W. Kalmus, and J. Q. Lu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 167 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Lu, X. H. Hu, and K. Dong, Appl. Opt. 39, 5890 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Simulations of light scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the FDTD method,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of refractive indices of porcine skin tissues and Intralipid at eight wavelengths between 325 and 1557 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Ma, X.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, Opt. Lett. 28, 2204 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Du, X. H. Hu, M. Cariveau, X. Ma, G. W. Kalmus, and J. Q. Lu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 167 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, “Study of optical properties of skin tissues from ultraviolet to short-wave infrared,” Ph.D. dissertation (East Carolina University, Greenville, N.C., 2004).

Mattsson, L.

J. M. Bennett and L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Ohta, K.

K. Suzuki, Y. Yamashita, K. Ohta, M. Kaneko, M. Yoshida, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Pawley, J. B.

J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995).

Pham, D.

B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pham, T.

B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Star, W. M.

M. J. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

M. J. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, Y. Yamashita, K. Ohta, M. Kaneko, M. Yoshida, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J.

M. J. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venugopalan, V.

B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, Med. Phys. 10, 824 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, Y.

K. Suzuki, Y. Yamashita, K. Ohta, M. Kaneko, M. Yoshida, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Simulations of light scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the FDTD method,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Yoshida, M.

K. Suzuki, Y. Yamashita, K. Ohta, M. Kaneko, M. Yoshida, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zijlstra, W. G.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. J. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Suzuki, Y. Yamashita, K. Ohta, M. Kaneko, M. Yoshida, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Phys. (1)

B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, Med. Phys. 10, 824 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Du, X. H. Hu, M. Cariveau, X. Ma, G. W. Kalmus, and J. Q. Lu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 167 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960).

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Simulations of light scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the FDTD method,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of refractive indices of porcine skin tissues and Intralipid at eight wavelengths between 325 and 1557 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

J. M. Bennett and L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).

X. Ma, “Study of optical properties of skin tissues from ultraviolet to short-wave infrared,” Ph.D. dissertation (East Carolina University, Greenville, N.C., 2004).

J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical linear surface-profile function along one of the lines sampled across a porcine dermis sample. Dashed line, cover glass surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength dependence of the optical parameters of porcine dermis samples inversely determined with assumptions of rough surfaces and of smooth surfaces. Error bars, standard deviations obtained from five samples of different thicknesses at each wavelength; solid curves are provided as a visual aid. Inset, wavelength dependence of reduced scattering coefficient μs=μs1-g.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sample Thickness d and Real Index nr of Fresh Porcine Dermis Tissue and Sample Holder Glass Adopted in MC Simulations

Equations (1)

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Σ=Rdcal-RdRd2+Tdcal-TdTd2+Tccal-TcTc2

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