Abstract

We present the first, to our knowledge, experimental images of complex-shaped phantoms embedded in diffuse media by use of optical tomography. Imaging is based on a complete-angle projection tomographic technique that utilizes transmitted early photons. Results are contrasted with measurements obtained at later gates as well as pseudocontinuous-wave data. The scanning system developed employs noncontact illumination and detection technologies that allow for high spatial sampling of transmitted photons. Combining this system with complete-angle illumination is found to be an important strategy toward improved imaging performance, resulting in a better-posed inversion problem. The appropriateness of reconstruction algorithms similar to those employed in x-ray computed tomography are showcased, and suggestions for model improvements are provided.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Chance, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 20, 1 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 32, 554 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. M. Yoo, B. B. Das, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 17, 958 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, B. B. Das, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 916 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. C. Hebden and D. T. Delpy, Opt. Lett. 19, 311 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. V. Zint, W. Uhring, M. Torregrossa, B. Cunin, and P. Poulet, Appl. Opt. 42, 3313 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. D’Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, J. Phys. D 36, 1675 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Cai, B. B. Das, F. Liu, M. Zevallos, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 13561 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, Opt. Lett. 26, 893 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Phys. 30, 901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1988).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. P. C. Hansen, in Rank-Deficient and Discrete Ill-Posed Problems (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1998), p. 100.

2003 (3)

C. D’Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, J. Phys. D 36, 1675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Phys. 30, 901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. V. Zint, W. Uhring, M. Torregrossa, B. Cunin, and P. Poulet, Appl. Opt. 42, 3313 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, B. B. Das, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, S. K. Gayen, M. Xu, M. Zevallos, M. Alrubaiee, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 38, 4237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

W. Cai, B. B. Das, F. Liu, M. Zevallos, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 13561 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

B. Chance, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 20, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. C. Paige and M. A. Saunders, ACM (Assoc. Comput. Mach.) Trans. Math. Software 8, 43 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

W. Cai, S. K. Gayen, M. Xu, M. Zevallos, M. Alrubaiee, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 38, 4237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, B. B. Das, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, B. B. Das, F. Liu, M. Zevallos, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 13561 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 32, 554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, B. B. Das, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 17, 958 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alrubaiee, M.

W. Cai, S. K. Gayen, M. Xu, M. Zevallos, M. Alrubaiee, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 38, 4237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, B. B. Das, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, S. K. Gayen, M. Xu, M. Zevallos, M. Alrubaiee, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 38, 4237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, B. B. Das, F. Liu, M. Zevallos, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 13561 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 20, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comelli, D.

C. D’Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, J. Phys. D 36, 1675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cubeddu, R.

C. D’Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, J. Phys. D 36, 1675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cunin, B.

D’Andrea, C.

C. D’Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, J. Phys. D 36, 1675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Das, B. B.

M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, B. B. Das, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, B. B. Das, F. Liu, M. Zevallos, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 13561 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Yoo, B. B. Das, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 17, 958 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden and D. T. Delpy, Opt. Lett. 19, 311 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, M. E.

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gayen, S. K.

M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, B. B. Das, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, S. K. Gayen, M. Xu, M. Zevallos, M. Alrubaiee, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 38, 4237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graves, E. E.

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Phys. 30, 901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, P. C.

P. C. Hansen, in Rank-Deficient and Discrete Ill-Posed Problems (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1998), p. 100.

Hebden, J. C.

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden and D. T. Delpy, Opt. Lett. 19, 311 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M. C.

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kak, A. C.

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1988).

Lax, M.

W. Cai, S. K. Gayen, M. Xu, M. Zevallos, M. Alrubaiee, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 38, 4237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, B. B. Das, F. Liu, M. Zevallos, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 13561 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

W. Cai, B. B. Das, F. Liu, M. Zevallos, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 13561 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 32, 554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, X. H.

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Phys. 30, 901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, Opt. Lett. 26, 893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paige, C. C.

C. C. Paige and M. A. Saunders, ACM (Assoc. Comput. Mach.) Trans. Math. Software 8, 43 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

C. D’Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, J. Phys. D 36, 1675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poulet, P.

Ripoll, J.

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Phys. 30, 901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, M. A.

C. C. Paige and M. A. Saunders, ACM (Assoc. Comput. Mach.) Trans. Math. Software 8, 43 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F. E. W.

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Slaney, M.

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1988).

Torregrossa, M.

Torricelli, A.

C. D’Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, J. Phys. D 36, 1675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uhring, W.

Valentini, G.

C. D’Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, J. Phys. D 36, 1675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Phys. 30, 901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, Opt. Lett. 26, 893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

Yoo, K. M.

Zevallos, M.

W. Cai, S. K. Gayen, M. Xu, M. Zevallos, M. Alrubaiee, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 38, 4237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, B. B. Das, F. Liu, M. Zevallos, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 13561 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zevallos, M. E.

M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, B. B. Das, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. G.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zint, C. V.

ACM (Assoc. Comput. Mach.) Trans. Math. Software (1)

C. C. Paige and M. A. Saunders, ACM (Assoc. Comput. Mach.) Trans. Math. Software 8, 43 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. (1)

B. Chance, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 20, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, B. B. Das, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D (1)

C. D’Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, J. Phys. D 36, 1675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Phys. 30, 901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

W. Cai, B. B. Das, F. Liu, M. Zevallos, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 13561 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, and B. Chance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1988).

P. C. Hansen, in Rank-Deficient and Discrete Ill-Posed Problems (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1998), p. 100.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the TR system experimental setup using noncontact technology (see text for details): CFD, constant fraction discriminator; HRI, high-rate imager; I/I, image intensifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Typical point-spread function collected after transmission through a 1.5-cm Intralipid–ink solution with μa=0.1 cm-1 and μs=7 cm-1. Dark gray shading indicates the earliest time gate of 0–200 ps, light gray shading indicates a later time gate of 200–400 ps, and the box indicates a pseudocontinuous-wave gate from 0 to 1000 ps. (b) Measured line profiles for the phantom in orientation indicated by insets. Dashed curve, early photons; dashed–dotted curve, later photons; solid curve, cw photons. Inset, outline of the actual dimensions of the phantom shown in the orientation corresponding to the line profiles shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(c) Reconstructed images by use of a binary diamond-shaped weight inverted by LSQR versus (d)–(f) the filtered backprojection of x-ray computed tomography for time delays of (a), (d) 0–200, (b), (e) 200–400, and (c), (f) 0–1000 ps. Schematic representations of the photon propagation models used for a single source–detector pair for the two columns of data: (g) binary diamond-shaped weight function and (h) pencil beam of the inverse Radon transform.

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