Abstract

We demonstrate a flat microlens that exhibits hermaphroditic focusing properties. When the input polarization is parallel (perpendicular) to the liquid-crystal directors, the lens exhibits a positive (negative) focal length. To select the proper polarization, we could rotate the polarizer (or the lens) mechanically or by use of an electrically controlled twisted nematic liquid-crystal cell. Details of the lens structure and of the device’s fabrication and performance are described.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (2)

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Lett. 29, 1608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Commun. 230, 267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Ji, J. Kim, and S. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 28, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

S. Yanase, K. Ouchi, and S. SatoJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, Opt. Commun. 177, 157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. Klaus, M. Ide, Y. Hayano, S. Morokawa, and Y. Ariomoto, Proc. SPIE 3635, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

1979 (1)

S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ariomoto, Y.

W. Klaus, M. Ide, Y. Hayano, S. Morokawa, and Y. Ariomoto, Proc. SPIE 3635, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Asatryan, K. E.

Bos, P. J.

Chien, L. C.

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. D. Lee, Opt. Mater. 21, 643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Commander, L. G.

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, Opt. Commun. 177, 157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Day, S. E.

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, Opt. Commun. 177, 157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

DeJule, M. C.

del Valle, S.

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Commun. 230, 267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Lett. 29, 1608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galstian, T. V.

Gauza, S.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Commun. 230, 267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayano, Y.

W. Klaus, M. Ide, Y. Hayano, S. Morokawa, and Y. Ariomoto, Proc. SPIE 3635, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ide, M.

W. Klaus, M. Ide, Y. Hayano, S. Morokawa, and Y. Ariomoto, Proc. SPIE 3635, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ji, H.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. H.

Y. Choi, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. D. Lee, Opt. Mater. 21, 643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klaus, W.

W. Klaus, M. Ide, Y. Hayano, S. Morokawa, and Y. Ariomoto, Proc. SPIE 3635, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Lee, S. D.

Y. Choi, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. D. Lee, Opt. Mater. 21, 643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lub, J.

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, S.

Morokawa, S.

W. Klaus, M. Ide, Y. Hayano, S. Morokawa, and Y. Ariomoto, Proc. SPIE 3635, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nose, T.

Ouchi, K.

S. Yanase, K. Ouchi, and S. SatoJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

Y. Choi, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. D. Lee, Opt. Mater. 21, 643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Patel, J. S.

Presnyakov, V. V.

Rastani, K.

Ren, H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Commun. 230, 267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Lett. 29, 1608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riza, N. A.

Sato, S.

S. Yanase, K. Ouchi, and S. SatoJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Nose, S. Masuda, S. Sato, J. Li, L. C. Chien, and P. J. Bos, Opt. Lett. 22, 351 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Selviah, D. R.

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, Opt. Commun. 177, 157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stallinga, S.

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stapert, H. R.

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tork, A.

van der Zande, B. M. I.

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Verstegen, E. J. K.

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Commun. 230, 267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Lett. 29, 1608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, New York, 2001).

Yanase, S.

S. Yanase, K. Ouchi, and S. SatoJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. K.

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, New York, 2001).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Yanase, K. Ouchi, and S. SatoJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Commun. 230, 267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, Opt. Commun. 177, 157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Choi, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. D. Lee, Opt. Mater. 21, 643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Klaus, M. Ide, Y. Hayano, S. Morokawa, and Y. Ariomoto, Proc. SPIE 3635, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, New York, 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Side view of hermaphroditic LC microlens arrays: n1 and n2 are the refractive indices of the molded microlenses along the y and x axes, respectively, and no and ne are the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of the LC material.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used for observing the imaging behavior of the molded cavity arrays. The rubbing direction of the molded cavity arrays is (a) parallel, (b) perpendicular, and (c) perpendicular to the polarizer’s transmission axis. The position of the sample in Fig. 2(c) is closer to the eyepiece.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Imaging properties of the molded cavity arrays: (a), (b), (c) correspond to the setups observed in Figs. 2(a), 2(b), and 2(c), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Imaging properties of the planar LC microlens arrays: (a), (b) images observed that correspond to the setups shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(c), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular-dependent focal lengths of the demonstrated microlens arrays. Filled and open circles, measured and calculated results, respectively.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f=R/nLC-nmold,
nLC=noneno2 cos2 θ+ne2 sin2 θ1/2,
nmold=n1n2n12 cos2 θ+n22 sin2 θ1/2.

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