Abstract

We report on two-photon detection based on nonlinear absorption between subbands in quantum wells. Resonantly enhanced nonlinear absorption, 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of typical bulk semiconductors, leads to a threshold power density for quadratic detection as low as 0.1 W/cm2 and to femtosecond time resolution. The approach facilitates dynamic characterization of the optical light field of infrared emitters with unprecedented sensitivity. We also present a new method for determining the intersubband and intrasubband scattering times by means of autocorrelation measurements.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. F. Levine, J. Appl. Phys. 74, R1 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Schneider, P. Koidl, M. Walther, J. Fleissner, R. Rehm, E. Diwo, K. Schwarz, and G. Weimann, Infrared Phys. Technol. 42, 283 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, Science 290, 1739 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Ehret and H. Schneider, Appl. Phys. B 66, 27 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, G. Catella, R. Utano, and J. A. Hutchinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 584 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Khurgin and S. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 126 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Li and J. Khurgin, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4367 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. C. Liu, E. Dupont, and M. Ershov, J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 433 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Zavriyev, E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, and Z. Biglov, Opt. Lett. 20, 1885 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Murayama and T. Nakayama, Phys. Rev. B 52, 4986 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5162 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Nessler, S. Ogawa, H. Nagano, H. Petek, J. Shimoyama, Y. Nakayama, and K. Kisho, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 88, 495 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. A. Kaindl, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161308 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

2004 (1)

T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. C. Liu, E. Dupont, and M. Ershov, J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Schneider, P. Koidl, M. Walther, J. Fleissner, R. Rehm, E. Diwo, K. Schwarz, and G. Weimann, Infrared Phys. Technol. 42, 283 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, Science 290, 1739 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

S. Ehret and H. Schneider, Appl. Phys. B 66, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Nessler, S. Ogawa, H. Nagano, H. Petek, J. Shimoyama, Y. Nakayama, and K. Kisho, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 88, 495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, G. Catella, R. Utano, and J. A. Hutchinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. Zavriyev, E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, and Z. Biglov, Opt. Lett. 20, 1885 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Murayama and T. Nakayama, Phys. Rev. B 52, 4986 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

J. Khurgin and S. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 126 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Li and J. Khurgin, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4367 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, J. Appl. Phys. 74, R1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Allik, T. H.

S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, G. Catella, R. Utano, and J. A. Hutchinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, Science 290, 1739 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biglov, Z.

A. Zavriyev, E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, and Z. Biglov, Opt. Lett. 20, 1885 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, Science 290, 1739 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catella, G.

S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, G. Catella, R. Utano, and J. A. Hutchinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, G. Catella, R. Utano, and J. A. Hutchinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, Science 290, 1739 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

A. Zavriyev, E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, and Z. Biglov, Opt. Lett. 20, 1885 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Diwo, E.

H. Schneider, P. Koidl, M. Walther, J. Fleissner, R. Rehm, E. Diwo, K. Schwarz, and G. Weimann, Infrared Phys. Technol. 42, 283 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, E.

H. C. Liu, E. Dupont, and M. Ershov, J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Zavriyev, E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, and Z. Biglov, Opt. Lett. 20, 1885 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, S.

S. Ehret and H. Schneider, Appl. Phys. B 66, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

R. A. Kaindl, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ershov, M.

H. C. Liu, E. Dupont, and M. Ershov, J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleissner, J.

H. Schneider, P. Koidl, M. Walther, J. Fleissner, R. Rehm, E. Diwo, K. Schwarz, and G. Weimann, Infrared Phys. Technol. 42, 283 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, Science 290, 1739 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hey, R.

R. A. Kaindl, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, Science 290, 1739 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, J. A.

S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, G. Catella, R. Utano, and J. A. Hutchinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaindl, R. A.

R. A. Kaindl, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J.

J. Khurgin and S. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 126 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Li and J. Khurgin, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4367 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kisho, K.

W. Nessler, S. Ogawa, H. Nagano, H. Petek, J. Shimoyama, Y. Nakayama, and K. Kisho, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 88, 495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koidl, P.

T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, P. Koidl, M. Walther, J. Fleissner, R. Rehm, E. Diwo, K. Schwarz, and G. Weimann, Infrared Phys. Technol. 42, 283 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, J. Appl. Phys. 74, R1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. Li and J. Khurgin, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4367 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Khurgin and S. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 126 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liu, E. Dupont, and M. Ershov, J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, Science 290, 1739 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zavriyev, E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, and Z. Biglov, Opt. Lett. 20, 1885 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maier, T.

T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, M.

M. Murayama and T. Nakayama, Phys. Rev. B 52, 4986 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, H.

W. Nessler, S. Ogawa, H. Nagano, H. Petek, J. Shimoyama, Y. Nakayama, and K. Kisho, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 88, 495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, T.

M. Murayama and T. Nakayama, Phys. Rev. B 52, 4986 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, Y.

W. Nessler, S. Ogawa, H. Nagano, H. Petek, J. Shimoyama, Y. Nakayama, and K. Kisho, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 88, 495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nessler, W.

W. Nessler, S. Ogawa, H. Nagano, H. Petek, J. Shimoyama, Y. Nakayama, and K. Kisho, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 88, 495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, S.

W. Nessler, S. Ogawa, H. Nagano, H. Petek, J. Shimoyama, Y. Nakayama, and K. Kisho, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 88, 495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, Science 290, 1739 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petek, H.

W. Nessler, S. Ogawa, H. Nagano, H. Petek, J. Shimoyama, Y. Nakayama, and K. Kisho, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 88, 495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K.

R. A. Kaindl, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rehm, R.

H. Schneider, P. Koidl, M. Walther, J. Fleissner, R. Rehm, E. Diwo, K. Schwarz, and G. Weimann, Infrared Phys. Technol. 42, 283 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, K.

R. A. Kaindl, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, H.

T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, P. Koidl, M. Walther, J. Fleissner, R. Rehm, E. Diwo, K. Schwarz, and G. Weimann, Infrared Phys. Technol. 42, 283 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Ehret and H. Schneider, Appl. Phys. B 66, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, K.

H. Schneider, P. Koidl, M. Walther, J. Fleissner, R. Rehm, E. Diwo, K. Schwarz, and G. Weimann, Infrared Phys. Technol. 42, 283 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Shimoyama, J.

W. Nessler, S. Ogawa, H. Nagano, H. Petek, J. Shimoyama, Y. Nakayama, and K. Kisho, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 88, 495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, Science 290, 1739 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utano, R.

S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, G. Catella, R. Utano, and J. A. Hutchinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, P. Koidl, M. Walther, J. Fleissner, R. Rehm, E. Diwo, K. Schwarz, and G. Weimann, Infrared Phys. Technol. 42, 283 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, G.

H. Schneider, P. Koidl, M. Walther, J. Fleissner, R. Rehm, E. Diwo, K. Schwarz, and G. Weimann, Infrared Phys. Technol. 42, 283 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

R. A. Kaindl, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zavriyev, A.

A. Zavriyev, E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, and Z. Biglov, Opt. Lett. 20, 1885 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Ehret and H. Schneider, Appl. Phys. B 66, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, G. Catella, R. Utano, and J. A. Hutchinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Khurgin and S. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 126 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

H. Schneider, P. Koidl, M. Walther, J. Fleissner, R. Rehm, E. Diwo, K. Schwarz, and G. Weimann, Infrared Phys. Technol. 42, 283 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. F. Levine, J. Appl. Phys. 74, R1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Li and J. Khurgin, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4367 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

W. Nessler, S. Ogawa, H. Nagano, H. Petek, J. Shimoyama, Y. Nakayama, and K. Kisho, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 88, 495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

H. C. Liu, E. Dupont, and M. Ershov, J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

A. Zavriyev, E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, and Z. Biglov, Opt. Lett. 20, 1885 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Murayama and T. Nakayama, Phys. Rev. B 52, 4986 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, Science 290, 1739 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the TP QWIP. Conduction-band energy diagram (dark, U-shaped line) of one QW that comprises two bound subbands, 1 and 2, and one continuum resonance 3 (lighter straight lines) in an electric field. Wave functions are also shown. Vertical arrows indicate optical excitation; the horizontal arrow symbolizes carrier escape. (b) Normalized absorption at 77 K in Brewster-angle geometry, photocurrent at 130 K owing to excitation from thermally populated subband 2 into subband 3, and TP photocurrent at 77 K under excitation by a continuous-wave CO2 laser versus excitation wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photocurrent density under continuous-wave illumination at a wavelength of 10.3 µm and at 1.5-V detector bias versus power density at three temperatures as indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) TP photocurrent autocorrelation of femtosecond optical pulses at 8.0 µm and (b) numerical fit versus delay time. The signal is normalized to its value at a large delay time above 10 ps.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

j2P=eβLfθghνP2.
βχ3=e240nrmc2n2DLwhνf12f232T22Te.
β2step=e240nrmc2n2DLwhνf12f234T1T2Te,

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