Abstract

An electro-optically active hybrid solgel doped with Disperse Red 13 has been developed by use of a simple solvent-assisted method. It permits a high loading concentration and has low optical loss at 1550 nm. A channel waveguide amplitude modulator has been fabricated by use of active and passive hybrid solgel materials. The device shows an electro-optic coefficient of 14 pm/V at 1550 nm and stable operation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford University, New York, 1997).
  2. Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Najafi, T. Touam, R. Sara, M. Andrews, and M. Fardad, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1640 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Goudket, M. Canva, and Y. Levy, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6044 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. V. Mishechkin, D. Lu, and M. Fallahi, in Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Laser and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 674–675.
  6. L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, Opt. Mater. 21, 19 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Lu, H. Zhang, J. A. Gordon, and M. Fallahi, Electron. Lett. 40, 1013 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1991).
  9. A. Nahata, J. Shan, J. T. Yardley, and C. Wu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1553 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 8 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Lu, H. Zhang, J. A. Gordon, and M. Fallahi, Electron. Lett. 40, 1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, Opt. Mater. 21, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Goudket, M. Canva, and Y. Levy, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6044 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

Andrews, M.

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Canva, M.

H. Goudket, M. Canva, and Y. Levy, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6044 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, Opt. Mater. 21, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

D. Lu, H. Zhang, J. A. Gordon, and M. Fallahi, Electron. Lett. 40, 1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Mishechkin, D. Lu, and M. Fallahi, in Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Laser and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 674–675.

Fardad, M.

Gordon, J. A.

D. Lu, H. Zhang, J. A. Gordon, and M. Fallahi, Electron. Lett. 40, 1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goudket, H.

H. Goudket, M. Canva, and Y. Levy, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6044 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harper, A.

L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, Opt. Mater. 21, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Levy, Y.

H. Goudket, M. Canva, and Y. Levy, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6044 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, D.

D. Lu, H. Zhang, J. A. Gordon, and M. Fallahi, Electron. Lett. 40, 1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Mishechkin, D. Lu, and M. Fallahi, in Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Laser and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 674–675.

Mishechkin, O. V.

O. V. Mishechkin, D. Lu, and M. Fallahi, in Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Laser and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 674–675.

Nahata, A.

Najafi, S.

Nielsen, R.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, Opt. Mater. 21, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ren, A.

L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. H.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, Opt. Mater. 21, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sara, R.

Shan, J.

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, Opt. Mater. 21, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Todorova, G.

L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Touam, T.

Wang, F.

L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

Yardley, J. T.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford University, New York, 1997).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1991).

Zhang, C.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

D. Lu, H. Zhang, J. A. Gordon, and M. Fallahi, Electron. Lett. 40, 1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Lu, H. Zhang, J. A. Gordon, and M. Fallahi, Electron. Lett. 40, 1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (1)

L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Goudket, M. Canva, and Y. Levy, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6044 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, Opt. Mater. 21, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

O. V. Mishechkin, D. Lu, and M. Fallahi, in Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Laser and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 674–675.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1991).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford University, New York, 1997).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustrative drawing of the cross section of the active hybrid solgel waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication of an active hybrid waveguide. (a) Photopatterned reverse mesa. (b) Reverse mesa filled with the active hybrid solgel by spin coating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Waveguiding and modulation of the channel waveguide amplitude modulator fabricated with an active hybrid solgel containing 30-wt. % of DR13. (a) Near-field mode of the active solgel waveguide. (b) Modulated signal recorded from an oscilloscope.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal stability of the E-O coefficient.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Io=2Ic sin2Ψsp+Ψspo/2,
r33=3λd2πdn3VΨsp,

Metrics