Abstract

We have realized a novel Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) thermo-optic switch that can operate over a much wider wavelength range than a conventional MZI switch. We constructed the novel MZI switch by incorporating a phase-generating coupler (PGC) as an optical coupler. The PGC generates a nonlinear wavelength-dependent phase, which functions as a virtual wavelength-dependent delay part that cancels out the wavelength dependence of a MZI. We fabricated the novel MZI switch on a silica-based planar light-wave circuit and achieved a low insertion loss of less than 1.6 dB and a high extinction ratio of 30 dB over a wide wavelength range of 160 nm.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Goh, M. Yasu, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 371 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Kim, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, and J. V. Gates, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper WG1, p. 411.
  3. S. Venkatesh, J. E. Fouquet, R. Haven, M. DePue, D. Seekola, H. Okano, and H. Uetsuka, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper ME1, p. 39.
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Kawachi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Okuno, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper TuE1, p. 169.
  6. T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, and H. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 29, 454 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 73 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Mizuno, H. Takahashi, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, T. Kominato, and T. Shibata, presented at the 30th European Conference on Optical Communication, Stockholm, Sweden, September 5–9, 2004, paper Tu1.4.4.
  9. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 2000).

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

1995 (1)

K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Kawachi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391 (1990).
[CrossRef]

DePue, M.

S. Venkatesh, J. E. Fouquet, R. Haven, M. DePue, D. Seekola, H. Okano, and H. Uetsuka, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper ME1, p. 39.
[CrossRef]

Fouquet, J. E.

S. Venkatesh, J. E. Fouquet, R. Haven, M. DePue, D. Seekola, H. Okano, and H. Uetsuka, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper ME1, p. 39.
[CrossRef]

Frahm, R. E.

J. Kim, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, and J. V. Gates, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper WG1, p. 411.

Gates, J. V.

J. Kim, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, and J. V. Gates, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper WG1, p. 411.

Goh, T.

Hattori, K.

Haven, R.

S. Venkatesh, J. E. Fouquet, R. Haven, M. DePue, D. Seekola, H. Okano, and H. Uetsuka, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper ME1, p. 39.
[CrossRef]

Himeno, A.

Inoue, Y.

Jinguji, K.

K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawachi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, and J. V. Gates, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper WG1, p. 411.

Kitoh, T.

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, and H. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 29, 454 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mizuno, H. Takahashi, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, T. Kominato, and T. Shibata, presented at the 30th European Conference on Optical Communication, Stockholm, Sweden, September 5–9, 2004, paper Tu1.4.4.

Kominato, T.

T. Mizuno, H. Takahashi, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, T. Kominato, and T. Shibata, presented at the 30th European Conference on Optical Communication, Stockholm, Sweden, September 5–9, 2004, paper Tu1.4.4.

Mizuno, T.

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, and H. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 29, 454 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mizuno, H. Takahashi, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, T. Kominato, and T. Shibata, presented at the 30th European Conference on Optical Communication, Stockholm, Sweden, September 5–9, 2004, paper Tu1.4.4.

Oguma, M.

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, and H. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 29, 454 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mizuno, H. Takahashi, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, T. Kominato, and T. Shibata, presented at the 30th European Conference on Optical Communication, Stockholm, Sweden, September 5–9, 2004, paper Tu1.4.4.

Ohmori, Y.

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 2000).

Okano, H.

S. Venkatesh, J. E. Fouquet, R. Haven, M. DePue, D. Seekola, H. Okano, and H. Uetsuka, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper ME1, p. 39.
[CrossRef]

Okuno, M.

T. Goh, M. Yasu, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 371 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Okuno, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper TuE1, p. 169.

Papazian, A. R.

J. Kim, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, and J. V. Gates, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper WG1, p. 411.

Seekola, D.

S. Venkatesh, J. E. Fouquet, R. Haven, M. DePue, D. Seekola, H. Okano, and H. Uetsuka, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper ME1, p. 39.
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, and H. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 29, 454 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mizuno, H. Takahashi, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, T. Kominato, and T. Shibata, presented at the 30th European Conference on Optical Communication, Stockholm, Sweden, September 5–9, 2004, paper Tu1.4.4.

Takahashi, H.

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, and H. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 29, 454 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mizuno, H. Takahashi, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, T. Kominato, and T. Shibata, presented at the 30th European Conference on Optical Communication, Stockholm, Sweden, September 5–9, 2004, paper Tu1.4.4.

Uetsuka, H.

S. Venkatesh, J. E. Fouquet, R. Haven, M. DePue, D. Seekola, H. Okano, and H. Uetsuka, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper ME1, p. 39.
[CrossRef]

Venkatesh, S.

S. Venkatesh, J. E. Fouquet, R. Haven, M. DePue, D. Seekola, H. Okano, and H. Uetsuka, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper ME1, p. 39.
[CrossRef]

Yasu, M.

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kawachi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Okuno, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper TuE1, p. 169.

J. Kim, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, and J. V. Gates, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper WG1, p. 411.

S. Venkatesh, J. E. Fouquet, R. Haven, M. DePue, D. Seekola, H. Okano, and H. Uetsuka, in 15th Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), paper ME1, p. 39.
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuno, H. Takahashi, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, T. Kominato, and T. Shibata, presented at the 30th European Conference on Optical Communication, Stockholm, Sweden, September 5–9, 2004, paper Tu1.4.4.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the proposed MZI switch in which conventional couplers are replaced with two PGCs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic configuration of the fabricated MZI switch in which the PGC is incorporated as the first coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated wavelength dependence of (top) phase Ψλ needed to realize the proposed MZI switch and phase Φλ generated by the PGC and (bottom) the amplitude-coupling ratio of the directional coupler and PGC.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated cross-port transmission spectra of the conventional and proposed switches.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured cross-port transmission spectra of the conventional and proposed switches fabricated with silica-based PLC technology.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Sn=Hnz-Fn*zFnzHn*z,
Pc=H1z2F2z2+F1z2H2z2+2H1zH2zF1zF2z×cos2πnλΔL/λ-Ψλ,
Ψλ=nλΔL+δL/λ+m/2,
H1z=H2z,    F1z=F2z.
Φλ=argH1z-argF1z+argF2z-argH2*z/2π,
Sd=cos θdλ-j sin θdλ-j sin θdλcos θdλ,

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