Abstract

A simple and effective optical roll-angle sensor based on a magnetic garnet single crystal is demonstrated. The measurement is based on the principle that, when linearly polarized light whose polarization varies alternately in two orthogonal directions passes through a polarization analyzer, the transmitted optical intensity varies. The output voltage from an optical detector located after the analyzer can be used to determine the roll angle. The chief advantages of the sensor are that it is compact, flexible, low cost, and power effective and provides a fast response. Most importantly, the sensor is insensitive to various fluctuations such as optical intensity, photodiode responsivity, and temperature and to vibrations. This performance is most advantageous in long-distance or long-term measurements. Experimental results have shown that the angular resolution is 0.01° in a ±30° range.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. H. Kolk and B. G. Moebius, Proc. SPIE 4134, 290 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Treichel, R. Sesselmann, and J. Krieger, Proc. SPIE 3824, 199 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. A. Lockerbie, N. J. McDonald, and R. G. Weston, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 988 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Chen, E. Zhang, H. Guo, L. Sun, and Q. Tian, Chin. J. Lasers 14, 625 (2003).
  5. M. Nevière, E. Popov, B. Bojhkov, L. Tsonev, and S. Tonchev, Proc. SPIE 3450, 46 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. T. Howard, T. C. Bryan, and M. L. Book, Proc. SPIE 3380, 315 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Liu, D. Lin, H. Jiang, and C. Yin, Sensors Actuators A 104, 127 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Jiang and C. Yin, Opt. Eng. 39, 516 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Fang, “Precision laser roll detector for instrument & machine toll metrology,” Ph.D. dissertation (Tianjin University, Tianjin, China, 1994).
  10. C. Yin, G. Xie, and X. Cheng, J. Tsinghua Univ. Sci. Technol. 36, 86 (1996).
  11. K. J. Warbrick, paper presented at the IEE Colloquium on All-Fibre Devices, London, June 3, 1988.
  12. S. Y. Didosyan, H. Hauser, and G. A. Reider, IEEE Trans. Magn. 38, 3243 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

N. A. Lockerbie, N. J. McDonald, and R. G. Weston, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. Chen, E. Zhang, H. Guo, L. Sun, and Q. Tian, Chin. J. Lasers 14, 625 (2003).

Z. Liu, D. Lin, H. Jiang, and C. Yin, Sensors Actuators A 104, 127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Y. Didosyan, H. Hauser, and G. A. Reider, IEEE Trans. Magn. 38, 3243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Jiang and C. Yin, Opt. Eng. 39, 516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Kolk and B. G. Moebius, Proc. SPIE 4134, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Treichel, R. Sesselmann, and J. Krieger, Proc. SPIE 3824, 199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Nevière, E. Popov, B. Bojhkov, L. Tsonev, and S. Tonchev, Proc. SPIE 3450, 46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Howard, T. C. Bryan, and M. L. Book, Proc. SPIE 3380, 315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Yin, G. Xie, and X. Cheng, J. Tsinghua Univ. Sci. Technol. 36, 86 (1996).

Bojhkov, B.

M. Nevière, E. Popov, B. Bojhkov, L. Tsonev, and S. Tonchev, Proc. SPIE 3450, 46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Book, M. L.

R. T. Howard, T. C. Bryan, and M. L. Book, Proc. SPIE 3380, 315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bryan, T. C.

R. T. Howard, T. C. Bryan, and M. L. Book, Proc. SPIE 3380, 315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, E. Zhang, H. Guo, L. Sun, and Q. Tian, Chin. J. Lasers 14, 625 (2003).

Cheng, X.

C. Yin, G. Xie, and X. Cheng, J. Tsinghua Univ. Sci. Technol. 36, 86 (1996).

Didosyan, S. Y.

S. Y. Didosyan, H. Hauser, and G. A. Reider, IEEE Trans. Magn. 38, 3243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z.

Z. Fang, “Precision laser roll detector for instrument & machine toll metrology,” Ph.D. dissertation (Tianjin University, Tianjin, China, 1994).

Guo, H.

L. Chen, E. Zhang, H. Guo, L. Sun, and Q. Tian, Chin. J. Lasers 14, 625 (2003).

Hauser, H.

S. Y. Didosyan, H. Hauser, and G. A. Reider, IEEE Trans. Magn. 38, 3243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Howard, R. T.

R. T. Howard, T. C. Bryan, and M. L. Book, Proc. SPIE 3380, 315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

Z. Liu, D. Lin, H. Jiang, and C. Yin, Sensors Actuators A 104, 127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and C. Yin, Opt. Eng. 39, 516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kolk, K. H.

K. H. Kolk and B. G. Moebius, Proc. SPIE 4134, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krieger, J.

R. Treichel, R. Sesselmann, and J. Krieger, Proc. SPIE 3824, 199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D.

Z. Liu, D. Lin, H. Jiang, and C. Yin, Sensors Actuators A 104, 127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, D. Lin, H. Jiang, and C. Yin, Sensors Actuators A 104, 127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lockerbie, N. A.

N. A. Lockerbie, N. J. McDonald, and R. G. Weston, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, N. J.

N. A. Lockerbie, N. J. McDonald, and R. G. Weston, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moebius, B. G.

K. H. Kolk and B. G. Moebius, Proc. SPIE 4134, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nevière, M.

M. Nevière, E. Popov, B. Bojhkov, L. Tsonev, and S. Tonchev, Proc. SPIE 3450, 46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Popov, E.

M. Nevière, E. Popov, B. Bojhkov, L. Tsonev, and S. Tonchev, Proc. SPIE 3450, 46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reider, G. A.

S. Y. Didosyan, H. Hauser, and G. A. Reider, IEEE Trans. Magn. 38, 3243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sesselmann, R.

R. Treichel, R. Sesselmann, and J. Krieger, Proc. SPIE 3824, 199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

L. Chen, E. Zhang, H. Guo, L. Sun, and Q. Tian, Chin. J. Lasers 14, 625 (2003).

Tian, Q.

L. Chen, E. Zhang, H. Guo, L. Sun, and Q. Tian, Chin. J. Lasers 14, 625 (2003).

Tonchev, S.

M. Nevière, E. Popov, B. Bojhkov, L. Tsonev, and S. Tonchev, Proc. SPIE 3450, 46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Treichel, R.

R. Treichel, R. Sesselmann, and J. Krieger, Proc. SPIE 3824, 199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsonev, L.

M. Nevière, E. Popov, B. Bojhkov, L. Tsonev, and S. Tonchev, Proc. SPIE 3450, 46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Warbrick, K. J.

K. J. Warbrick, paper presented at the IEE Colloquium on All-Fibre Devices, London, June 3, 1988.

Weston, R. G.

N. A. Lockerbie, N. J. McDonald, and R. G. Weston, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, G.

C. Yin, G. Xie, and X. Cheng, J. Tsinghua Univ. Sci. Technol. 36, 86 (1996).

Yin, C.

Z. Liu, D. Lin, H. Jiang, and C. Yin, Sensors Actuators A 104, 127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and C. Yin, Opt. Eng. 39, 516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Yin, G. Xie, and X. Cheng, J. Tsinghua Univ. Sci. Technol. 36, 86 (1996).

Zhang, E.

L. Chen, E. Zhang, H. Guo, L. Sun, and Q. Tian, Chin. J. Lasers 14, 625 (2003).

Chin. J. Lasers (1)

L. Chen, E. Zhang, H. Guo, L. Sun, and Q. Tian, Chin. J. Lasers 14, 625 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

S. Y. Didosyan, H. Hauser, and G. A. Reider, IEEE Trans. Magn. 38, 3243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Tsinghua Univ. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Yin, G. Xie, and X. Cheng, J. Tsinghua Univ. Sci. Technol. 36, 86 (1996).

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. Jiang and C. Yin, Opt. Eng. 39, 516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

K. H. Kolk and B. G. Moebius, Proc. SPIE 4134, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Treichel, R. Sesselmann, and J. Krieger, Proc. SPIE 3824, 199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Nevière, E. Popov, B. Bojhkov, L. Tsonev, and S. Tonchev, Proc. SPIE 3450, 46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Howard, T. C. Bryan, and M. L. Book, Proc. SPIE 3380, 315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

N. A. Lockerbie, N. J. McDonald, and R. G. Weston, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators A (1)

Z. Liu, D. Lin, H. Jiang, and C. Yin, Sensors Actuators A 104, 127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Z. Fang, “Precision laser roll detector for instrument & machine toll metrology,” Ph.D. dissertation (Tianjin University, Tianjin, China, 1994).

K. J. Warbrick, paper presented at the IEE Colloquium on All-Fibre Devices, London, June 3, 1988.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Operation of the sensor: P1,P2, polarization planes of the analyzer and the polarizer, respectively; Vin, input voltage applied to the coil; Va, amplitude of Vin; θ, roll angle; +, clockwise; -, counterclockwise; Vout, output voltage from the optical detector; V1,V2, values of Vout when Vin is positive and negative, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: S, unpolarized light source; F, fiber; Co, collimator; P, polarizer; C, coil; MG, magnetic garnet; FL, focusing lens; A, analyzer; D, optical detector; FG, function generator; O, oscilloscope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output voltages of V1 and V2 as functions of roll angle. Inset, measured roll angles in the range ±30°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output voltages of V1 and V2 when a lock-in amplifier is used. Left, waveforms when the roll angle changes from 2.5 to 3.

Equations (1)

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θ=arcsinV1-V2/V1+V2/2.

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