Abstract

A quantitative technique for flow measurements based on a wash-in analysis is proposed. The technique makes use of the shape dependence of the optical absorption of gold nanorods and the transitions in their shape induced by pulsed laser irradiation. The photon-induced shape transition of gold nanorods involves mainly a rod-to-sphere conversion and a shift in the peak optical absorption wavelength. The application of a series of laser pulses will induce shape changes in gold nanorods as they flow through a region of interest, with quantitative flow information being derived from the photoacoustic signals from the irradiated gold nanorods measured as a function of time. To demonstrate the feasibility of the technique, a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm was used for irradiation and a 1 MHz ultrasonic transducer was used for acoustic detection. The flow velocity ranged from 0.35 to 2.83mms. Excellent agreement between the measured velocities and the actual velocities was demonstrated, with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.93. This study is a pioneer work on wash-in flow estimation in photoacoustic imaging.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005 (1)

P.-C. Li, C. W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, H.-C. Tseng, Y.-P. Lin, and C.-C. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5697, 63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Yeh, C.-Y. Yang, G.-F. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Wu, and C.-C. Chen, Chem. Commun. 23, 2920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P.-C. Li, C.-K. Yeh, and S.-W. Wang, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 349 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. M. Niemeyer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40, 4128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. Ugolini, A. Delouche, A. Herment, and B. Diebold, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S.-S. Chang, C.-W. Shih, C.-D. Chen, W.-C. Lai, and C. R.C. Wang, Langmuir 15, 701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-S.

S.-S. Chang, C.-W. Shih, C.-D. Chen, W.-C. Lai, and C. R.C. Wang, Langmuir 15, 701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

P.-C. Li, C. W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, H.-C. Tseng, Y.-P. Lin, and C.-C. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5697, 63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Yeh, C.-Y. Yang, G.-F. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Wu, and C.-C. Chen, Chem. Commun. 23, 2920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-D.

S.-S. Chang, C.-W. Shih, C.-D. Chen, W.-C. Lai, and C. R.C. Wang, Langmuir 15, 701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.-F.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Yeh, C.-Y. Yang, G.-F. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Wu, and C.-C. Chen, Chem. Commun. 23, 2920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-C.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Yeh, C.-Y. Yang, G.-F. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Wu, and C.-C. Chen, Chem. Commun. 23, 2920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Copland, J. A.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delouche, A.

P. Ugolini, A. Delouche, A. Herment, and B. Diebold, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diebold, B.

P. Ugolini, A. Delouche, A. Herment, and B. Diebold, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eghtedari, M.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herment, A.

P. Ugolini, A. Delouche, A. Herment, and B. Diebold, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S.-H.

P.-C. Li, S.-H. Huang, C.-W. Wei, and C. C.R. Wang, in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings (IEEE, 2005).

Kotov, N.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, W.-C.

S.-S. Chang, C.-W. Shih, C.-D. Chen, W.-C. Lai, and C. R.C. Wang, Langmuir 15, 701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.-C.

P.-C. Li, C. W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, H.-C. Tseng, Y.-P. Lin, and C.-C. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5697, 63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P.-C. Li, C.-K. Yeh, and S.-W. Wang, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 349 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-C. Li, S.-H. Huang, C.-W. Wei, and C. C.R. Wang, in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings (IEEE, 2005).

Liao, C.-K.

P.-C. Li, C. W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, H.-C. Tseng, Y.-P. Lin, and C.-C. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5697, 63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-C.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Yeh, C.-Y. Yang, G.-F. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Wu, and C.-C. Chen, Chem. Commun. 23, 2920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-P.

P.-C. Li, C. W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, H.-C. Tseng, Y.-P. Lin, and C.-C. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5697, 63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mamedova, N.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niemeyer, C. M.

C. M. Niemeyer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40, 4128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A. A.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, V. L.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, C.-W.

S.-S. Chang, C.-W. Shih, C.-D. Chen, W.-C. Lai, and C. R.C. Wang, Langmuir 15, 701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, H.-C.

P.-C. Li, C. W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, H.-C. Tseng, Y.-P. Lin, and C.-C. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5697, 63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ugolini, P.

P. Ugolini, A. Delouche, A. Herment, and B. Diebold, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. C.R.

P.-C. Li, S.-H. Huang, C.-W. Wei, and C. C.R. Wang, in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings (IEEE, 2005).

Wang, C. R.C.

S.-S. Chang, C.-W. Shih, C.-D. Chen, W.-C. Lai, and C. R.C. Wang, Langmuir 15, 701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-W.

P.-C. Li, C.-K. Yeh, and S.-W. Wang, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 349 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, C. W.

P.-C. Li, C. W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, H.-C. Tseng, Y.-P. Lin, and C.-C. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5697, 63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C.-W.

P.-C. Li, S.-H. Huang, C.-W. Wei, and C. C.R. Wang, in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings (IEEE, 2005).

Wu, Y.-C.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Yeh, C.-Y. Yang, G.-F. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Wu, and C.-C. Chen, Chem. Commun. 23, 2920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-Y.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Yeh, C.-Y. Yang, G.-F. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Wu, and C.-C. Chen, Chem. Commun. 23, 2920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.-K.

P.-C. Li, C.-K. Yeh, and S.-W. Wang, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 349 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, Y.-C.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Yeh, C.-Y. Yang, G.-F. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Wu, and C.-C. Chen, Chem. Commun. 23, 2920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

C. M. Niemeyer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40, 4128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (1)

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Yeh, C.-Y. Yang, G.-F. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Wu, and C.-C. Chen, Chem. Commun. 23, 2920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

S.-S. Chang, C.-W. Shih, C.-D. Chen, W.-C. Lai, and C. R.C. Wang, Langmuir 15, 701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Imaging Biol. (1)

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P.-C. Li, C. W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, H.-C. Tseng, Y.-P. Lin, and C.-C. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5697, 63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (2)

P.-C. Li, C.-K. Yeh, and S.-W. Wang, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 349 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ugolini, A. Delouche, A. Herment, and B. Diebold, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

P.-C. Li, S.-H. Huang, C.-W. Wei, and C. C.R. Wang, in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings (IEEE, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coordinates of the measurement system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Estimated flow velocity (vertical) versus actual flow velocity (horizontal) and the results of linear regression. The actual velocities measured were 0.35, 0.71, 1.06, 1.41, 2.12, and 2.83 mm s .

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 n ( t ) t = [ ( k PRF ) ] n 0 exp ( u PRF ) 1 n ( t ) t = ( k PRF ) + n 0 ,
n ( t ) t = ( k PRF ) ( n 0 n ) r k + n , k = 0 , 1 , 2 , ,
n ( t ) t = [ ( k + 1 ) PRF ] r n ( t ) t = ( k PRF ) .
n ( t ) t = ( k PRF ) + r n ( t ) t = ( k PRF ) .
1 n ( k + 1 ) = s [ 1 r n ( k ) ] ,
n ( k ) = ( 1 s 1 r s ) + [ 1 ( 1 s 1 r s ) ] ( r s ) k .
n ( k ) = n + ( 1 n ) w k ,
n = 1 s 1 r s
s = 1 ( 1 r s ) n = 1 ( 1 w ) n
v u = PRF log [ 1 ( 1 w ) n ] .

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