Abstract

The influence of the optical feedback ratio and bias current on the mean and the standard deviation of the power dropout ratio of low-frequency fluctuations in external-cavity semiconductor lasers has been studied experimentally. The power dropout ratio was found to increase with increasing optical feedback ratio and to decrease with increasing bias current.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Schunk and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1242 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 93 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Hong, S. Bandyopadhyay, S. Sivaprakasam, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1847 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. M. Kane and K. A. Shore, eds., Unlocking Dynamical Diversity (Wiley, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, and D. Lenstra, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 466 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Risch and C. Voumard, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2083 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Henry and R. F. Kazarinov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 294 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Sano, Phys. Rev. A 50, 2719 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Hohl, H. J.C. van der Linden, and R. Roy, Opt. Lett. 20, 2396 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. A. Viktorov and P. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3157 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. I. Fischer, G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, W. Elsasser, E. Göbel, and D. Lenstra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 220 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Mulet and C. R. Mirasso, Phys. Rev. E 59, 5400 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. S. Torre, C. Masoller, P. Mandel, and K. A. Shore, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 302 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Gavrielides, T. C. Newell, V. Kovanis, R. G. Harrison, N. Swanston, D. Yu, and W. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1577 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Hong and K. A. Shore, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1054 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Heil, I. Fischer, and W. Elsasser, Phys. Rev. A 58, R2672 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. W. Sukow, J. R. Gardner, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3370 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. F.Martinez Avila, H. L.D. de S. Cavalcante, and J. R.Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 144101 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. S. Spencer and K. A. Shore, Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 819–830 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2005

Y. Hong and K. A. Shore, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1054 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. S. Torre, C. Masoller, P. Mandel, and K. A. Shore, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F.Martinez Avila, H. L.D. de S. Cavalcante, and J. R.Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 144101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

E. A. Viktorov and P. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3157 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. Mulet and C. R. Mirasso, Phys. Rev. E 59, 5400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Gavrielides, T. C. Newell, V. Kovanis, R. G. Harrison, N. Swanston, D. Yu, and W. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1577 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Heil, I. Fischer, and W. Elsasser, Phys. Rev. A 58, R2672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. W. Sukow, J. R. Gardner, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Spencer and K. A. Shore, Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 819–830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

I. Fischer, G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, W. Elsasser, E. Göbel, and D. Lenstra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 220 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

A. Hohl, H. J.C. van der Linden, and R. Roy, Opt. Lett. 20, 2396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, and D. Lenstra, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. Sano, Phys. Rev. A 50, 2719 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 93 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

N. Schunk and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1242 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Henry and R. F. Kazarinov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 294 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

C. Risch and C. Voumard, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2083 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Avila, J. F.Martinez

J. F.Martinez Avila, H. L.D. de S. Cavalcante, and J. R.Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 144101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, S.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

de S. Cavalcante, H. L.D.

J. F.Martinez Avila, H. L.D. de S. Cavalcante, and J. R.Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 144101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elsasser, W.

T. Heil, I. Fischer, and W. Elsasser, Phys. Rev. A 58, R2672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Fischer, G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, W. Elsasser, E. Göbel, and D. Lenstra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 220 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, I.

T. Heil, I. Fischer, and W. Elsasser, Phys. Rev. A 58, R2672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Fischer, G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, W. Elsasser, E. Göbel, and D. Lenstra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 220 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, J. R.

D. W. Sukow, J. R. Gardner, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

D. W. Sukow, J. R. Gardner, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gavrielides, A.

A. Gavrielides, T. C. Newell, V. Kovanis, R. G. Harrison, N. Swanston, D. Yu, and W. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1577 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Göbel, E.

I. Fischer, G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, W. Elsasser, E. Göbel, and D. Lenstra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 220 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, R. G.

A. Gavrielides, T. C. Newell, V. Kovanis, R. G. Harrison, N. Swanston, D. Yu, and W. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1577 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Heil, T.

T. Heil, I. Fischer, and W. Elsasser, Phys. Rev. A 58, R2672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C.

C. Henry and R. F. Kazarinov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 294 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hohl, A.

Hong, Y.

Kazarinov, R. F.

C. Henry and R. F. Kazarinov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 294 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kovanis, V.

A. Gavrielides, T. C. Newell, V. Kovanis, R. G. Harrison, N. Swanston, D. Yu, and W. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1577 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Lang, R.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Leite, J. R.Rios

J. F.Martinez Avila, H. L.D. de S. Cavalcante, and J. R.Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 144101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

I. Fischer, G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, W. Elsasser, E. Göbel, and D. Lenstra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 220 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, and D. Lenstra, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Levine, A. M.

I. Fischer, G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, W. Elsasser, E. Göbel, and D. Lenstra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 220 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, and D. Lenstra, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

A. Gavrielides, T. C. Newell, V. Kovanis, R. G. Harrison, N. Swanston, D. Yu, and W. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1577 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Mandel, P.

Mark, J.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 93 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Masoller, C.

Mirasso, C. R.

J. Mulet and C. R. Mirasso, Phys. Rev. E 59, 5400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mork, J.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 93 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mulet, J.

J. Mulet and C. R. Mirasso, Phys. Rev. E 59, 5400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Newell, T. C.

A. Gavrielides, T. C. Newell, V. Kovanis, R. G. Harrison, N. Swanston, D. Yu, and W. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1577 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

N. Schunk and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1242 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Risch, C.

C. Risch and C. Voumard, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2083 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

Sano, T.

T. Sano, Phys. Rev. A 50, 2719 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schunk, N.

N. Schunk and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1242 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shore, K. A.

Sivaprakasam, S.

Spencer, P. S.

Sukow, D. W.

D. W. Sukow, J. R. Gardner, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swanston, N.

A. Gavrielides, T. C. Newell, V. Kovanis, R. G. Harrison, N. Swanston, D. Yu, and W. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1577 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Torre, M. S.

Tromborg, B.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 93 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van der Linden, H. J.C.

van Tartwijk, G. H.M.

I. Fischer, G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, W. Elsasser, E. Göbel, and D. Lenstra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 220 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, and D. Lenstra, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Viktorov, E. A.

E. A. Viktorov and P. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3157 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voumard, C.

C. Risch and C. Voumard, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2083 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D.

A. Gavrielides, T. C. Newell, V. Kovanis, R. G. Harrison, N. Swanston, D. Yu, and W. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1577 (1999)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. Schunk and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1242 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 93 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. Henry and R. F. Kazarinov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 294 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong and K. A. Shore, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1054 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, and D. Lenstra, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Risch and C. Voumard, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2083 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

T. Sano, Phys. Rev. A 50, 2719 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Heil, I. Fischer, and W. Elsasser, Phys. Rev. A 58, R2672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Sukow, J. R. Gardner, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Gavrielides, T. C. Newell, V. Kovanis, R. G. Harrison, N. Swanston, D. Yu, and W. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1577 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

J. Mulet and C. R. Mirasso, Phys. Rev. E 59, 5400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. F.Martinez Avila, H. L.D. de S. Cavalcante, and J. R.Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 144101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Viktorov and P. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3157 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fischer, G. H.M. van Tartwijk, A. M. Levine, W. Elsasser, E. Göbel, and D. Lenstra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 220 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Semiclassic. Opt.

P. S. Spencer and K. A. Shore, Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 819–830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. M. Kane and K. A. Shore, eds., Unlocking Dynamical Diversity (Wiley, 2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PDR as a function of feedback ratio. Squares, experimental data; solid curve, exponential fit to the experimental data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized standard deviation of the dropout ( σ A ) as a function of feedback ratio. Squares, experimental measurements; solid curve, exponential fit to the experimental data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Average period T of LFF. (b) Normalized standard deviation ( σ T ) as a function of optical feedback ratio.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) PDR, (b) average period of LFF (c) normalized standard deviation σ A , (d) σ T versus bias current with an approximately 21.5 dB feedback ratio.

Equations (1)

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PDR = A P max = 1 P min P max .

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