Abstract

We report observations and measurements of the inscription of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in two different types of microstructured polymer optical fiber: few-mode and an endlessly single mode. Contrary to the FBG inscription in silica microstructured fiber, where high-energy laser pulses are a prerequisite, we have successfully used a low-power cw laser source operating at 325 nm to produce 1 cm long gratings with a reflection peak at 1570 nm. Peak reflectivities of more than 10% have been observed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings, Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).
  2. W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Bowden, E. A. Chandross, and I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Opt. 13, 112, (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Commun. 219, 139 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C.J. Large, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, Opt. Lett. 24, 1460 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Groothoff, J. Canning, E. Buckley, K. Lyttikainen, and J. Zagari, Opt. Lett. 28, 233 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C.J. Large, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

1999 (1)

1974 (1)

1970 (1)

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Barton, G.

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C.J. Large, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J. A.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, M. J.

Buckley, E.

Canning, J.

Chandross, E. A.

M. J. Bowden, E. A. Chandross, and I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Opt. 13, 112, (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Commun. 219, 139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, Opt. Lett. 24, 1460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L. B.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Groothoff, N.

Gu, M.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Henry, G.

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C.J. Large, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kalli, K.

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings, Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).

Kaminow, I. P.

M. J. Bowden, E. A. Chandross, and I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Opt. 13, 112, (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Large, M. C.J.

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C.J. Large, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. B.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Commun. 219, 139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. Y.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Commun. 219, 139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lyttikainen, K.

Magi, E. C.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings, Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).

Peng, G. D.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Commun. 219, 139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silfvast, W. T.

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

Steinvurzel, P.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

Straub, M.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C.J. Large, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

Withford, M. J.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zagari, J.

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C.J. Large, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Groothoff, J. Canning, E. Buckley, K. Lyttikainen, and J. Zagari, Opt. Lett. 28, 233 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Commun. 219, 139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C.J. Large, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings, Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical microscope image of the cross section of the few-mode mPOF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Backscattered diffraction patterns of the He–Cd laser viewed by fluorescence; the pattern on the left was needed for successful inscription. Note that for clarity in the images, the fiber has been twisted slightly to shift the backscatter off the core region to the left of the main pattern; for correct alignment these would be superimposed. The orientation of the pattern is indicated on the screen in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflection profile of FBG fabricated in few-moded mPOF. Inset, growth of signal-to-noise ratio.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflection profile of FBG fabricated in SM mPOF. Inset, growth of signal-to-noise ratio.

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