Abstract

We present a technique for liquid leak detection in which ultrasonic and optical waves are introduced into a fiber simultaneously. The system is based on an ultrasonic technique using an ultrasonic actuator and a fiber Bragg grating receiver. A fiber-guided ultrasonic wave is utilized to stress the fiber Bragg grating, which is remote from the ultrasonic transmitter. When the traveling ultrasonic wave encounters a liquid, part of the wave will leak out from the fiber, which results in an ultrasonic strain decrease in the fiber Bragg grating. The ultrasonic wave and its attenuation are detected by the light variation of a narrowband laser source reflected and transmitted from the fiber Bragg grating, and the amplitude variation of the ultrasound can eventually be correlated with the fiber area coupled with the liquid.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Lissak, A. Arie, and M. Tur, Opt. Lett. 24, 1930 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 122 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. V. Spirin, R. M. Lopez, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, I. Marquez, E. A. Kuzin, G. Beltran-Perez, and P. L. Swart, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 341 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, Dan Marsh, and P. Parker, Sens. Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. Mendieta Jimenez, and R. M. Lopez Gutierrez, Opt. Lasers Eng. 32, 497 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Marquez Borbon, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, V. V. Spirin, and R. M. Lopez, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 347 (2002).

2004 (1)

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, Dan Marsh, and P. Parker, Sens. Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

V. V. Spirin, R. M. Lopez, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, I. Marquez, E. A. Kuzin, G. Beltran-Perez, and P. L. Swart, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Marquez Borbon, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, V. V. Spirin, and R. M. Lopez, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 347 (2002).

2000 (1)

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. Mendieta Jimenez, and R. M. Lopez Gutierrez, Opt. Lasers Eng. 32, 497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Lissak, A. Arie, and M. Tur, Opt. Lett. 24, 1930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

B. Lissak, A. Arie, and M. Tur, Opt. Lett. 24, 1930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beltran, G.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beltran-Perez, G.

V. V. Spirin, R. M. Lopez, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, I. Marquez, E. A. Kuzin, G. Beltran-Perez, and P. L. Swart, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Betz, D. C.

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, Dan Marsh, and P. Parker, Sens. Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnstone, W.

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, Dan Marsh, and P. Parker, Sens. Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuzin, E. A.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Spirin, R. M. Lopez, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, I. Marquez, E. A. Kuzin, G. Beltran-Perez, and P. L. Swart, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lissak, B.

B. Lissak, A. Arie, and M. Tur, Opt. Lett. 24, 1930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, R. M.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Spirin, R. M. Lopez, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, I. Marquez, E. A. Kuzin, G. Beltran-Perez, and P. L. Swart, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Marquez Borbon, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, V. V. Spirin, and R. M. Lopez, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 347 (2002).

Lopez Gutierrez, R. M.

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. Mendieta Jimenez, and R. M. Lopez Gutierrez, Opt. Lasers Eng. 32, 497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

MacLean, A.

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, Dan Marsh, and P. Parker, Sens. Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marquez, I.

V. V. Spirin, R. M. Lopez, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, I. Marquez, E. A. Kuzin, G. Beltran-Perez, and P. L. Swart, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marquez Borbon, I.

I. Marquez Borbon, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, V. V. Spirin, and R. M. Lopez, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 347 (2002).

Marquez Lucero, A.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, Dan

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, Dan Marsh, and P. Parker, Sens. Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mendieta Jimenez, F. J.

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. Mendieta Jimenez, and R. M. Lopez Gutierrez, Opt. Lasers Eng. 32, 497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miridonov, S. V.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Spirin, R. M. Lopez, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, I. Marquez, E. A. Kuzin, G. Beltran-Perez, and P. L. Swart, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Marquez Borbon, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, V. V. Spirin, and R. M. Lopez, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 347 (2002).

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. Mendieta Jimenez, and R. M. Lopez Gutierrez, Opt. Lasers Eng. 32, 497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moran, C.

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, Dan Marsh, and P. Parker, Sens. Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parker, P.

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, Dan Marsh, and P. Parker, Sens. Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shlyagin, M. G.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Spirin, R. M. Lopez, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, I. Marquez, E. A. Kuzin, G. Beltran-Perez, and P. L. Swart, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Marquez Borbon, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, V. V. Spirin, and R. M. Lopez, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 347 (2002).

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. Mendieta Jimenez, and R. M. Lopez Gutierrez, Opt. Lasers Eng. 32, 497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spirin, V. V.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Spirin, R. M. Lopez, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, I. Marquez, E. A. Kuzin, G. Beltran-Perez, and P. L. Swart, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Marquez Borbon, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, V. V. Spirin, and R. M. Lopez, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 347 (2002).

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. Mendieta Jimenez, and R. M. Lopez Gutierrez, Opt. Lasers Eng. 32, 497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Staszewski, W. J.

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

V. V. Spirin, R. M. Lopez, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, I. Marquez, E. A. Kuzin, G. Beltran-Perez, and P. L. Swart, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thursby, G.

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

B. Lissak, A. Arie, and M. Tur, Opt. Lett. 24, 1930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. Mendieta Jimenez, and R. M. Lopez Gutierrez, Opt. Lasers Eng. 32, 497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

B. Lissak, A. Arie, and M. Tur, Opt. Lett. 24, 1930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

V. V. Spirin, R. M. Lopez, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, I. Marquez, E. A. Kuzin, G. Beltran-Perez, and P. L. Swart, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Marquez Borbon, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, V. V. Spirin, and R. M. Lopez, in Proc. SPIE 4694, 347 (2002).

Sens. Actuators A (1)

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, Dan Marsh, and P. Parker, Sens. Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of fiber optic liquid leak detection system. AFG, arbitrary function generator; HSA, high-speed amplifier; OC, optical circulator; P, photodetector; TL, tunable laser; UT, ultrasonic transmitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Working principle: leaky wave occurrence due to coupling of the optical fiber with liquid.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Application: (a) schematic for water leak detection along a pipeline, and (b) experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Comparison between piezoelectric and FBG receivers and leak-induced wave attenuation detected by the FBG receiver.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Changes in peak-to-peak amplitude for a single water leak and multiple leaks.

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