Abstract

We present a miniature diaphragm-based Fabry–Perot (F-P) interferometric fiber optic sensor fabricated by novel techniques for pressure or acoustic wave measurement that is only 0.32mm in diameter. By choosing different diaphragm thicknesses and effective diameters, we obtain a sensor measurement range from 5 to 10,000 psi (1psi=51.72Torr) and a frequency response up to 2 MHz. In addition, the sensor’s F-P cavity can be set from micrometers to millimeters with a precision of several nanometers. With the all-silica structure, the sensor is reliable, biocompatible, and immune to electromagnetic interference and has high-temperature sensing capability.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Yu, D. W. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, Appl. Opt. 42, 3241 (2003).
  2. J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. L Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Cibula, D. Donlagic, and C. Stropnik, in Sensors; 2002 Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002), Vol. 1, p. 711.
  4. K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, in Transducers, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, (2003), Vol. 1, p. 931.
  5. Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 447 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “All-fused-silica miniature optical fiber tip pressure sensor,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
  7. M. D. Giovanni, Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook (Marcel Dekker, 1982).
  8. D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D.C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).
  10. J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, K. L Cooper, P. Zhang, and A. Wang, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 05), (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CThL5.
  12. A. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, W. Zhao, and R. G. May, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1495 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, Z. Huang, B. Qi, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, and A. Wang, AIP Conf. Proc. 684, 1021 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Shen, W. Peng, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, Proc. SPIE 5590, 47 (2004).

2005

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. L Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Shen, W. Peng, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, Proc. SPIE 5590, 47 (2004).

2003

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, Z. Huang, B. Qi, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, and A. Wang, AIP Conf. Proc. 684, 1021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D.C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).

B. Yu, D. W. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, Appl. Opt. 42, 3241 (2003).

2001

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, W. Zhao, and R. G. May, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1495 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Abeysinghe, D. C.

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S. J.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D.C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).

Barton, J. S.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D.C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).

Boyd, J. T.

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chana, K. S.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D.C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).

Cibula, E.

E. Cibula, D. Donlagic, and C. Stropnik, in Sensors; 2002 Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002), Vol. 1, p. 711.

Cooper, K. L

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. L Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, K. L Cooper, P. Zhang, and A. Wang, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 05), (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CThL5.

Cooper, K. L.

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “All-fused-silica miniature optical fiber tip pressure sensor,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Dasgupta, S.

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J.

Donlagic, D.

E. Cibula, D. Donlagic, and C. Stropnik, in Sensors; 2002 Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002), Vol. 1, p. 711.

Duan, Y.

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, Z. Huang, B. Qi, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, and A. Wang, AIP Conf. Proc. 684, 1021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Esashi, M.

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, in Transducers, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, (2003), Vol. 1, p. 931.

Gander, M. J.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D.C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).

Giovanni, M. D.

M. D. Giovanni, Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook (Marcel Dekker, 1982).

Haga, Y.

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, in Transducers, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, (2003), Vol. 1, p. 931.

Huang, Z.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, Z. Huang, B. Qi, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, and A. Wang, AIP Conf. Proc. 684, 1021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huo, W.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, H. E.

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D.C.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D.C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).

Jones, T. V.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D.C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).

Kim, D. W.

Kobayashi, H.

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W. N.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D.C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).

May, R. G.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, W. Zhao, and R. G. May, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1495 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. L Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pickrell, G.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. L Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pickrell, G. R.

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, Z. Huang, B. Qi, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, and A. Wang, AIP Conf. Proc. 684, 1021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, K. L Cooper, P. Zhang, and A. Wang, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 05), (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CThL5.

Qi, B.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, Z. Huang, B. Qi, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, and A. Wang, AIP Conf. Proc. 684, 1021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reuben, R. L.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D.C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).

Stevens, R.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D.C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).

Stropnik, C.

E. Cibula, D. Donlagic, and C. Stropnik, in Sensors; 2002 Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002), Vol. 1, p. 711.

Totsu, K.

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, in Transducers, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, (2003), Vol. 1, p. 931.

Wang, A.

Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. L Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, Z. Huang, B. Qi, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, and A. Wang, AIP Conf. Proc. 684, 1021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Yu, D. W. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, Appl. Opt. 42, 3241 (2003).

A. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, W. Zhao, and R. G. May, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1495 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “All-fused-silica miniature optical fiber tip pressure sensor,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, K. L Cooper, P. Zhang, and A. Wang, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 05), (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CThL5.

Wang, J.

Wang, X.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. L Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “All-fused-silica miniature optical fiber tip pressure sensor,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Wang, Z.

Wolff, J. M.

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Yu, D. W. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, Appl. Opt. 42, 3241 (2003).

A. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, W. Zhao, and R. G. May, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1495 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. L Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, Z. Huang, B. Qi, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, and A. Wang, AIP Conf. Proc. 684, 1021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “All-fused-silica miniature optical fiber tip pressure sensor,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, K. L Cooper, P. Zhang, and A. Wang, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 05), (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CThL5.

Yu, B.

Zhang, P.

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, Z. Huang, B. Qi, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, and A. Wang, AIP Conf. Proc. 684, 1021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, K. L Cooper, P. Zhang, and A. Wang, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 05), (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CThL5.

Zhao, W.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “All-fused-silica miniature optical fiber tip pressure sensor,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

AIP Conf. Proc.

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, Z. Huang, B. Qi, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, and A. Wang, AIP Conf. Proc. 684, 1021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. L Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D.C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Eng.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

F. Shen, W. Peng, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, Proc. SPIE 5590, 47 (2004).

Other

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, K. L Cooper, P. Zhang, and A. Wang, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 05), (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CThL5.

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “All-fused-silica miniature optical fiber tip pressure sensor,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

M. D. Giovanni, Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook (Marcel Dekker, 1982).

E. Cibula, D. Donlagic, and C. Stropnik, in Sensors; 2002 Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002), Vol. 1, p. 711.

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, in Transducers, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, (2003), Vol. 1, p. 931.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Miniature diaphragm-based fiber optic pressure sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical pressure sensitivities of the sensor for three diaphragm diameters D.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sensor’s static pressure response (15–50 psi) at room temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical natural frequency of the sensor for three diaphragm diameters D.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of sensor on temperature at room pressure.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Y c = 3 ( 1 μ 2 ) 16 E h 3 = 1.71 × 10 5 r 4 h 3 [ nm psi ] ,
L = λ 1 λ 2 2 ( λ 2 λ 1 ) ,
f 00 = α 00 4 π [ E 3 w ( 1 μ 2 ) ] 1 2 ( h r 2 ) = 2.742 × 10 9 h r 2 [ Hz ] ,

Metrics