Abstract

Delivery of high peak-power femtosecond pulses with fibers is constrained by nonlinear distortions accumulated during pulse propagation. We address this problem with a novel, to our knowledge, fiber schematic, where the pulse propagates in a small Aeff (18μm2) but highly dispersive (record value of 900psnmkm) medium, enabled by transmission in the LP02 mode of a few-mode fiber. The novel fiber yields a low dispersion-to-nonlinear-length ratio (due to its large dispersion) despite its small Aeff, hence enabling mitigation of nonlinearities. This enables fiber delivery of distortion-free <150fs, 1nJ, and 840nm pulses—an order-of-magnitude improvement over single-mode fibers of similar Aeff.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2004 (2)

G. Alexandrakis, E. B. Brown, R. T. Tong, T. D. McKee, R. B. Campbell, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 10, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Goebel, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, Opt. Lett. 29, 1285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Menashe, M. Tur, and Y. Danziger, Electron. Lett. 37, 1439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. B. Norris, Ultramicroscopy 71, 213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001), Chaps. 3 and 4.

Alexandrakis, G.

G. Alexandrakis, E. B. Brown, R. T. Tong, T. D. McKee, R. B. Campbell, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 10, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boivin, L.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, Y.

G. Alexandrakis, E. B. Brown, R. T. Tong, T. D. McKee, R. B. Campbell, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 10, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Brown, E. B.

G. Alexandrakis, E. B. Brown, R. T. Tong, T. D. McKee, R. B. Campbell, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 10, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brownlow, D.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R. B.

G. Alexandrakis, E. B. Brown, R. T. Tong, T. D. McKee, R. B. Campbell, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 10, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cowsar, L. C.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Danziger, Y.

D. Menashe, M. Tur, and Y. Danziger, Electron. Lett. 37, 1439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

Fishteyn, M.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M.

Gaeta, A. L.

Ghalmi, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goebel, W.

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Helmchen, F.

Holme, N. C. R.

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. B. Norris, Ultramicroscopy 71, 213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huff, R. G.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

G. Alexandrakis, E. B. Brown, R. T. Tong, T. D. McKee, R. B. Campbell, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 10, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kopelman, R.

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. B. Norris, Ultramicroscopy 71, 213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McKee, T. D.

G. Alexandrakis, E. B. Brown, R. T. Tong, T. D. McKee, R. B. Campbell, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 10, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Menashe, D.

D. Menashe, M. Tur, and Y. Danziger, Electron. Lett. 37, 1439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K.

Myaing, M.

Nicholson, J. W.

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nimmerjahn, A.

Norris, T.

Norris, T. B.

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. B. Norris, Ultramicroscopy 71, 213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B.

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. B. Norris, Ultramicroscopy 71, 213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ouzounov, D.

Ramachandran, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, and M. F. Yan, Opt. Lett. 27, 698 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published November 2005).

Raybon, G.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S.

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. B. Norris, Ultramicroscopy 71, 213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tank, D. W.

Tong, R. T.

G. Alexandrakis, E. B. Brown, R. T. Tong, T. D. McKee, R. B. Campbell, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 10, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

D. Menashe, M. Tur, and Y. Danziger, Electron. Lett. 37, 1439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Urayama, J.

Wang, Z.

Webb, W. W.

Wisk, P.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, and M. F. Yan, Opt. Lett. 27, 698 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zipfel, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Menashe, M. Tur, and Y. Danziger, Electron. Lett. 37, 1439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (N.Y.) (1)

G. Alexandrakis, E. B. Brown, R. T. Tong, T. D. McKee, R. B. Campbell, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 10, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Ultramicroscopy (1)

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. B. Norris, Ultramicroscopy 71, 213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Ramachandran, J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published November 2005).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001), Chaps. 3 and 4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experiment and the device structure. Output modal images indicate similar modal areas for HOM and SMF. M, mirror; G, bulk grating. HOM fiber preceded by LPG, whose conversion efficiency is shown in (b). (c) HOM dispersion is 8.5 times higher than SMF. (d) Both the SMF and the HOM have negligible bend loss for radii 1 cm , due to small A eff .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spectra of the HOM and the SMF at selected output power levels (spectral resolution = 0.1 nm ). No ripples in the low-power HOM spectrum indicates high modal purity. (b) Spectral width versus power. SPM-induced spectral narrowing more pronounced in SMF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity autocorrelation at selected output power levels. High power: HOM broadens slightly but maintains shape; SMF significantly broadens and distorts.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pulse width versus output power or pulse energy. SPM onset in SMF at 0.075 nJ ; in HOM at 0.8 nJ . The power handling capability of the HOM is 10.67 times higher than that of the SMF. Transmitted up to 0.9 nJ for pulse widths < 150 fs with the HOM.

Equations (2)

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L D = ( 2 π c λ 2 ) ( τ 2 D ) ,
L NL = A eff λ 2 π n 2 P peak ,

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