Abstract

We show theoretically that photonic crystal membranes cause large variations in the spontaneous emission rate of dipole emitters, not only inside but also in the near field above the membranes. Our three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations reveal an inhibition of more than five times and an enhancement of more than ten times for the spontaneous emission rate of emitters with select dipole orientations and frequencies. Furthermore, we demonstrate theoretically the potential of a nanoscopic emitter attached to the end of a glass fiber tip as a local probe for mapping the large spatial variations of the photonic crystal local radiative density of states. This arrangement is promising for on-command modification of the coupling between an emitter and the photonic crystal in quantum optical experiments.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. M. Soukoulis, ed., Photonic Crystals and Light Localization in the 21st Century (Kluwer Academic, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. P. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, Science 305, 227 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. V. Kamat, Chem. Rev. 93, 267 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, E. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and A. Imamo?lu, Science 308, 1158 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Kramper, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, U. Gösele, R. B. Wehrspohn, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Lett. 29, 174 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, B. C. Buchler, and V. Sandoghdar, arXiV.org e-Print archive, December 15, 2004, http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0412394.
  10. J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. H. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 2 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Zwiller, T. Aichele, F. Hatami, W. T. Masselink, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091911 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. K. Lee, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1438 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 2000).
  15. C. Hermann and O. Hess, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3013 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Sprik, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, Europhys. Lett. 35, 265 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and V. Sandoghdar, “Spontaneous emission rates of dipoles in photonic crystal membranes,” in preparation (2005).
  18. S. Fan, P. R. Vileneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, E. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and A. Imamo?lu, Science 308, 1158 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Zwiller, T. Aichele, F. Hatami, W. T. Masselink, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

P. Kramper, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, U. Gösele, R. B. Wehrspohn, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Lett. 29, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, Science 305, 227 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. H. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Lee, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Vileneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Sprik, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, Europhys. Lett. 35, 265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. V. Kamat, Chem. Rev. 93, 267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aichele, T.

V. Zwiller, T. Aichele, F. Hatami, W. T. Masselink, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atatüre, M.

A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, E. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and A. Imamo?lu, Science 308, 1158 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, E. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and A. Imamo?lu, Science 308, 1158 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, O.

V. Zwiller, T. Aichele, F. Hatami, W. T. Masselink, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birner, A.

Deppe, D. G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreiser, J.

A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, E. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and A. Imamo?lu, Science 308, 1158 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ell, C.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, P. R. Vileneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gösele, U.

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 2000).

Hatami, F.

V. Zwiller, T. Aichele, F. Hatami, W. T. Masselink, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hendickson, J.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hennessy, K.

A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, E. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and A. Imamo?lu, Science 308, 1158 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, C.

Hess, O.

Hettich, C.

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. H. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, E.

A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, E. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and A. Imamo?lu, Science 308, 1158 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imada, M.

S. P. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, Science 305, 227 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, E. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and A. Imamo?lu, Science 308, 1158 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irman, A.

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan, P. R. Vileneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

P. Kramper, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, U. Gösele, R. B. Wehrspohn, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Lett. 29, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and V. Sandoghdar, “Spontaneous emission rates of dipoles in photonic crystal membranes,” in preparation (2005).

Kamat, P. V.

P. V. Kamat, Chem. Rev. 93, 267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenderink, A. F.

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and V. Sandoghdar, “Spontaneous emission rates of dipoles in photonic crystal membranes,” in preparation (2005).

Kramper, P.

Kühn, S.

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. H. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

R. Sprik, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, Europhys. Lett. 35, 265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Lodahl, P.

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masselink, W. T.

V. Zwiller, T. Aichele, F. Hatami, W. T. Masselink, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, J.

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

Müller, F.

Nikolaev, I. S.

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

S. P. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, Science 305, 227 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogawa, S. P.

S. P. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, Science 305, 227 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okano, M.

S. P. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, Science 305, 227 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Overgaag, K.

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petroff, P. M.

A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, E. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and A. Imamo?lu, Science 308, 1158 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poizat, J. P. H.

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. H. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rupper, G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

P. Kramper, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, U. Gösele, R. B. Wehrspohn, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Lett. 29, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. H. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and V. Sandoghdar, “Spontaneous emission rates of dipoles in photonic crystal membranes,” in preparation (2005).

Scherer, A.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, C.

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. H. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Fan, P. R. Vileneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

P. Kramper, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, U. Gösele, R. B. Wehrspohn, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Lett. 29, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and V. Sandoghdar, “Spontaneous emission rates of dipoles in photonic crystal membranes,” in preparation (2005).

Sprik, R.

R. Sprik, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, Europhys. Lett. 35, 265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 2000).

van Driel, A. F.

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Tiggelen, B. A.

R. Sprik, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, Europhys. Lett. 35, 265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vileneuve, P. R.

S. Fan, P. R. Vileneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vos, W. L.

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

Xu, Y.

Yariv, A.

Yoshie, T.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimoto, S.

S. P. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, Science 305, 227 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zwiller, V.

V. Zwiller, T. Aichele, F. Hatami, W. T. Masselink, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Zwiller, T. Aichele, F. Hatami, W. T. Masselink, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

P. V. Kamat, Chem. Rev. 93, 267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

R. Sprik, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, Europhys. Lett. 35, 265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. H. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (4)

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Vileneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

S. P. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, Science 305, 227 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, E. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and A. Imamo?lu, Science 308, 1158 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, B. C. Buchler, and V. Sandoghdar, arXiV.org e-Print archive, December 15, 2004, http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0412394.

C. M. Soukoulis, ed., Photonic Crystals and Light Localization in the 21st Century (Kluwer Academic, 2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 2000).

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and V. Sandoghdar, “Spontaneous emission rates of dipoles in photonic crystal membranes,” in preparation (2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emission rate normalized to the vacuum rate versus frequency for an x-oriented dipole in the central hole of a PC membrane (details in text). Black spectra correspond to dipoles in the slab ( z < 0 ) and gray to dipoles above the slab ( z > 0 ) , as listed in the legend.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission rate normalized to the vacuum rate for an x-oriented dipole (A) in the mid-depth, (B) on the surface, and (C) 110 nm above the PC membrane as a function of frequency and position along the trajectory indicated by the red line in (D). The trajectory traces the edges of the irreducible part of the unit cell. The dashed lines mark the borders between air hole and dielectric. The logarithmic color scales are shown on top.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission rate modification as a function of the height of a dipole above the PC membrane. Diamonds, circles, and squares show data for a λ = 0.23 , 0.28 , 0.34 , corresponding to frequencies below, in, and above the gap, respectively. The shaded region shows the range of positions 125 < z < 0 nm in the membrane.

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