Abstract

We report an experimental demonstration of low-light-level photon switching by quantum interference in laser-cooled Rb87 atoms. A resonant probe pulse with an energy per unit area of one photon per λ22π propagates through the optically thick atoms. Its energy transmittance is greater than 63%, or a loss of less than e1, because of the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. In the presence of a switching pulse with an energy per unit area of 1.4 photons per λ22π, the energy transmittance of the same probe pulse becomes less than 37%, or e1. This substantial reduction of probe transmittance caused by switching photons may lead to potential applications in single-photon-level nonlinear optics and manipulation of quantum information.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. D. A. Braje, V. Bali?, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kang and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. F. Chen, G. C. Pan, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063801 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2005

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

Y. F. Chen, G. C. Pan, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. A. Braje, V. Bali?, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bajcsy, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 426, 638 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kocharovskaya, Y. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 628 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chen, Y. A. Liao, H. Y. Chiu, J. J. Su, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 053806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bajcsy, M.

M. Bajcsy, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 426, 638 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balic, V.

D. A. Braje, V. Bali?, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, M. D.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braje, D. A.

D. A. Braje, V. Bali?, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, M. S.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

Y. C. Chen, Y. A. Liao, H. Y. Chiu, J. J. Su, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 053806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, G. C. Pan, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, H. Y.

Y. C. Chen, Y. A. Liao, H. Y. Chiu, J. J. Su, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 053806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, S. M.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawes, A. M. C.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D. J.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

D. A. Braje, V. Bali?, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Illing, L.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H.

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kocharovskaya, O.

O. Kocharovskaya, Y. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 628 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Y. A.

Y. C. Chen, Y. A. Liao, H. Y. Chiu, J. J. Su, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 053806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

M. Bajcsy, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 426, 638 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mair, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, G. C.

Y. F. Chen, G. C. Pan, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. F.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rickey, E. G.

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y.

O. Kocharovskaya, Y. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 628 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauer, J. A.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

O. Kocharovskaya, Y. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 628 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J. J.

Y. C. Chen, Y. A. Liao, H. Y. Chiu, J. J. Su, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 053806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walsworth, R. L.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

D. A. Braje, V. Bali?, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, I. A.

Y. F. Chen, G. C. Pan, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, Y. A. Liao, H. Y. Chiu, J. J. Su, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 053806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. Bajcsy, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 426, 638 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bajcsy, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 426, 638 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

D. A. Braje, V. Bali?, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, G. C. Pan, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, Y. A. Liao, H. Y. Chiu, J. J. Su, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 053806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kocharovskaya, Y. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 628 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Probe transmission versus detuning in the absence of the atoms (gray solid curve), and in the EIT (gray dashed curve) and switching (black solid curve) conditions. Ω p = 0.07 Γ , Ω c = 0.40 Γ , and Ω s = 0.30 Γ .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Probe transmissions in the absence of the atoms (black curve), in the EIT condition (red curve), and under the constant presence of both the coupling and switching fields (blue curve). The solid and dashed curves represent the experimental data and the best fits, respectively. Ω p , max = 0.10 Γ , Ω c = 0.40 Γ , and Ω s = 0.21 Γ . Delay times with and without the switching field are 0.73 and 1.2 μ s , respectively. (b) Probe transmission (blue solid curve) in the presence of the square switching pulse (blue dotted curve). The black and red lines are the same as those in (a). Ω s = 0.14 Γ .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Ratio of the EIT to switching optical densities versus the pulse width. Ω p , max = 0.155 Γ τ , Ω c = 0.62 Γ τ , and Ω s = 0.22 Γ τ , where τ is the probe pulse width in μ s . (b) Energy transmittance versus number of switching photons per λ 2 2 π . Ω p , max = 0.10 Γ and Ω c = 0.40 Γ . The error bars are about the size of the data points. The solid curve is the best fit. (c) Energy transmittance versus offset between the centers of the probe and switching pulses. Ω p , max = 0.10 Γ , Ω c = 0.40 Γ , and Ω s = 0.13 Γ .

Equations (3)

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T D = N σ L Γ Ω c 2 ( Ω c 2 + Ω s 2 ) 2 ,
α = N σ L Ω s 2 + 2 γ Γ Ω c 2 + Ω s 2 + 2 γ Γ .
y ( Ω s ) = p exp ( N σ L 2 γ Γ Ω c 2 + 2 γ Γ ) + ( 1 p ) exp ( N σ L Ω s 2 + 2 γ Γ Ω c 2 + Ω s 2 + 2 γ Γ ) ,

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