Abstract

Space-variant partially polarized thermal emission is investigated. We show that by coupling surface phonon-polaritons to a propagating field, large anisotropy of the emissivity is obtained within a narrow spectral range. We experimentally demonstrate this effect by fabricating a space-variant subwavelength grating on a SiO2 substrate to encrypt an image in the polarization state of a thermal radiation field.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).
  2. K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Surf. Sci. Rep. 57, 59 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Hasman, G. Biener, A. Niv, and V. Kleiner, in Progress in Optics, Vol. 47, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2005), pp. 215–289.
  6. N. Dahan, A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 30, 1096 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. Matoba and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 43, 2915 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. C. Mogensen and J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 173, 177 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  11. E. Collett, Polarized Light (Dekker, 1993).

2005 (3)

N. Dahan, A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 30, 1096 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Surf. Sci. Rep. 57, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Matoba and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 43, 2915 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. C. Mogensen and J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 173, 177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biener, G.

N. Dahan, A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 30, 1096 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hasman, G. Biener, A. Niv, and V. Kleiner, in Progress in Optics, Vol. 47, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2005), pp. 215–289.

Carminati, R.

K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Surf. Sci. Rep. 57, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collett, E.

E. Collett, Polarized Light (Dekker, 1993).

Dahan, N.

N. Dahan, A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glückstad, J.

P. C. Mogensen and J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 173, 177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Surf. Sci. Rep. 57, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasman, E.

N. Dahan, A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 30, 1096 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hasman, G. Biener, A. Niv, and V. Kleiner, in Progress in Optics, Vol. 47, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2005), pp. 215–289.

Javidi, B.

Joulain, K.

K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Surf. Sci. Rep. 57, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleiner, V.

N. Dahan, A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 30, 1096 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hasman, G. Biener, A. Niv, and V. Kleiner, in Progress in Optics, Vol. 47, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2005), pp. 215–289.

Mainguy, S.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquier, F.

K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Surf. Sci. Rep. 57, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matoba, O.

Mogensen, P. C.

P. C. Mogensen and J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 173, 177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mulet, J.-P.

K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Surf. Sci. Rep. 57, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niv, A.

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 30, 1096 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dahan, A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Hasman, G. Biener, A. Niv, and V. Kleiner, in Progress in Optics, Vol. 47, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2005), pp. 215–289.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Dahan, A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. C. Mogensen and J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 173, 177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. Rep. (1)

K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Surf. Sci. Rep. 57, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

E. Hasman, G. Biener, A. Niv, and V. Kleiner, in Progress in Optics, Vol. 47, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2005), pp. 215–289.

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

E. Collett, Polarized Light (Dekker, 1993).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Calculated Si O 2 spectral EMD in the normal direction for a grating with period Λ = 2 μ m , fill factor q = 0.5 , and depth h = 0.7 μ m . The inset shows the spectral dependence of the real part of the Si O 2 dielectric constant, ϵ . (b) Calculated EMD as a function of the observation angle, θ, with the same parameters as in (a). (c) Calculated EMD versus grating depth for a wavelength of 8.93 μ m with normal observation; grating parameters: period Λ = 2 μ m , fill factor q = 0.5 . (d) Calculated EMD versus grating fill factor ( q ) for a wavelength 8.93 μ m with a normal direction of light; grating parameters: period Λ = 2 μ m , depth = 0.7 μ m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated (circles) and measured (solid curves) Si O 2 spectral EMD in normal direction for a grating with period Λ = 2 μ m , fill factor q = 0.3 , and depth h = 0.8 μ m . The inset shows a SEM image of the grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Gray-scale intensity of the primary image to be encrypted. (b) Orientation function of the key, ϕ k , is shown in gray scale. (c) A SEM image of the encrypted element taken from a small region in the element. The arrows indicate the TM polarization orientation of the thermal emission near the grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured intensities, I 0 , I 45 , I 90 , obtained with a polarizer in varying orientations: (a) 0°, (b) 45°, and (c) 90°. The white arrows indicate the orientation angle of the polarizer. (d) Measured intensity emitted by the encrypted element without a polarizer. (e) Measured polarization state of the emitted light from the central region of the encrypted element. (f) Decrypted image achieved by the decryption process using intensities I 0 , I 45 , I 90 , and the correct key function, ϕ k , shown in Fig. 3(b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Orientation function of the wrong key is shown in gray scale. (b) Unsuccessfully decrypted image produced by the decryption process using intensities I 0 , I 45 , and I 90 , but with the wrong key function.

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