Abstract

We investigated the feasibility of using a silica microsphere sensor for detection of small molecules. Using the silica molecules (60 Da) at the sphere’s surface as a model system, we measured the spectral shifts in the whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) when the sphere size was decreased by a hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. The results demonstrate that our sensor is capable of detecting a 4 pm (or 0.01 layer of silica) decrease in sphere radius, corresponding to a change of 0.4 fmol silica molecule. These results suggest that small molecules can be detected in trace quantities at the surface of an optical microsphere sensor.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, Opt. Lett. 28, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, and A. Libchaber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. L. Schreiber, Science 287, 1964 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1996

1995

1989

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

L. T. Zhuravlev, Langmuir 3, 316 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, Opt. Lett. 28, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bearman, G. H.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, and A. Libchaber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Do, D.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubreuil, N.

Fan, X.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microspheric resonators,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, and X. Fan, “Aqueous mercuric ion detection with microsphere optical ring resonator sensors,” submitted to Sens. Actuators B.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 21, 453 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hanumegowda, N. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, and X. Fan, “Aqueous mercuric ion detection with microsphere optical ring resonator sensors,” submitted to Sens. Actuators B.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microspheric resonators,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Hara, J.

Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

Heidecker, B.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holler, S.

Ilchenko, V. S.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 24, 723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 21, 453 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jung, L. S.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoshsima, M.

Knight, J. C.

Kossakovski, D.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, and A. Libchaber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lide, D. R.

D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, 2005), Version 2005 available on CD-ROM.

Maleki, L.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 24, 723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, J. L.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nock, S.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, B. C.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microspheric resonators,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Peluso, P.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phelan, M.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poindexter, K.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quincy, D.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raimond, J. M.

Sandoghdar, V.

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schreiber, S. L.

S. L. Schreiber, Science 287, 1964 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stica, C. J.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microspheric resonators,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Teraoka, I.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, Opt. Lett. 28, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolani, N.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, H.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkatasubbaiah, M.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, Opt. Lett. 28, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, and A. Libchaber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, P.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, I. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, and X. Fan, “Aqueous mercuric ion detection with microsphere optical ring resonator sensors,” submitted to Sens. Actuators B.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microspheric resonators,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Wilson, D. S.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, K.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, X. S.

Zhuravlev, L. T.

L. T. Zhuravlev, Langmuir 3, 316 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, Anal. Biochem. 312, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, and A. Libchaber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir

L. T. Zhuravlev, Langmuir 3, 316 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science

S. L. Schreiber, Science 287, 1964 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, 2005), Version 2005 available on CD-ROM.

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, and X. Fan, “Aqueous mercuric ion detection with microsphere optical ring resonator sensors,” submitted to Sens. Actuators B.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microspheric resonators,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects and VLSI Photonics/WBM Microcavities, 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2004).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A microsphere is sensitive to changes in molecules near the sphere’s surface. (b) Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The WGM’s spectral position shifts to a lower wavelength in response to the decrease in size of the microsphere. The Q factor is 5 × 10 5 . Microsphere’s nominal size, r = 91 μ m ; HF concentration, 0.05% by volume. Curves are shown at 5 s intervals and have been shifted vertically for clarity. The arrow indicates the direction of the WGM shift.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

WGM’s relative shift in spectral position over time for several HF concentrations. Sphere sizes, r = 91 μ m (solid curves) and r = 130 μ m (dashed curves). Inset, WGM spectral shift rates for 91 μ m (circles) and 130 μ m (squares) spheres.

Equations (3)

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2 π n eff r = l λ n ( l ) ,
δ r r = δ λ n ( l ) λ n ( l ) .
δ λ σ d n d c m ,

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