Abstract

Quarter-wave retardation can be achieved in optical tunneling through a low-index thin film that is surrounded by a medium of higher refractive index, for any index ratio N>2.414, over a range of incidence angles that is determined by N. A novel frustrated-total-internal-reflection circular polarization beam splitter (CPBS) is proposed that uses an adjustable air gap between two Ge prisms. This tunable CPBS operates over a broad (212μm) IR spectral range by controlling the air-gap thickness to match one-tenth of the wavelength of light by use of a piezoelectric transducer.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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Astheimer, R. W.

Azzam, R. M. A.

Bashara, N. M.

See, for example, R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1987).

Baumeister, P. W.

Carneglia, C. K.

Court, I. N.

De, A.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Falbel, G.

Hall, E. E.

E. E. Hall, Phys. Rev. 15, 73 (1902).
[Crossref]

Harris, T. J.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, in Handbook of Optics, Vol. II, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 33.

Hawley, D.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, Am. J. Phys. 54, 601 (1986).
[Crossref]

Holmes, D. A.

Li, L.

Mahmoud, F. A.

Mandel, L.

Minkowitz, S.

Roy, R.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, Am. J. Phys. 54, 601 (1986).
[Crossref]

Thomas, M. E.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, in Handbook of Optics, Vol. II, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 33.

Tropf, W. J.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, in Handbook of Optics, Vol. II, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 33.

von Willisen, F. K.

Yu, A. W.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, Am. J. Phys. 54, 601 (1986).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, Am. J. Phys. 54, 601 (1986).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical scheme of FTIR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized gap thickness x versus angle of incidence ϕ (in degrees) such that QWR is achieved in optical tunneling by the Ge–air–Ge system ( N = 4 ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio d λ for QWR (under the condition of equal tunneling of p- and s-polarized light) plotted as a function of wavelength λ (in μ m ) for the Ge–air–Ge system. Because of the weak dispersion of Ge in the 2 12 μ m wavelength range, d λ remains close to 0.1 over much of this spectral range.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Incident linear polarization azimuth ψ, which is required to make the transmitted light circularly polarized, is plotted as a function of the angle of incidence ϕ for the Ge–air–Ge system. This so-called principal azimuth monotonically decreases as the principal angle increases over the solution range ϕ 1 < ϕ < ϕ 2 . Both ψ and ϕ are in degrees.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top, normalized film thickness x required for QWR as a function of the angle of incidence ϕ in degrees for different values of the normalized refractive index N from 2.5 to 6.0 in equal steps of 0.5. Bottom, associated throughputs for the p and s polarizations, T p and T s , respectively.

Equations (4)

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N = n 0 n 1 , x = 4 n 1 d λ ,
Δ t = f ( N , x , ϕ ) = 90 ° .
sin 2 ϕ 1 , 2 = [ ( N 2 + 1 ) ( N 4 6 N 2 + 1 ) 1 2 ] 4 N 2 ,
sin 2 ϕ e = 2 ( N 2 + 1 ) ,

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