Abstract

We report the fabrication of three-dimensional structures of submicrometer resolution by three-photon polymerization. This resolution has been achieved by polymerizing ORMOCER, a UV photocurable organic–inorganic hybrid material, with an ultrafast laser irradiation at 1028nm. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of three-photon polymerization, a process that may allow the fabrication of components of very high resolution.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 22, 132 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, Thin Solid Films 453, 518 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. H. Nguyen, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 209 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Deubel, G. v. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Galajda and P. Ormosa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Tanaka, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Straub, L. H. Nguyen, A. Fazlic, and M. Gu, Opt. Mater. 27, 359 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Serbin, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, Opt. Express 12, 5221 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, Opt. Lett. 28, 301 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Houbertz, L. Frohlich, M. Popall, U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, A. Brauer, J. Serbin, and B. N. Chichkov, Adv. Eng. Mater. 5, 551 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005

L. H. Nguyen, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Deubel, G. v. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, Thin Solid Films 453, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, L. H. Nguyen, A. Fazlic, and M. Gu, Opt. Mater. 27, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Serbin, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, Opt. Express 12, 5221 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, Opt. Lett. 28, 301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Houbertz, L. Frohlich, M. Popall, U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, A. Brauer, J. Serbin, and B. N. Chichkov, Adv. Eng. Mater. 5, 551 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Tanaka, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Galajda and P. Ormosa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

Brauer, A.

R. Houbertz, L. Frohlich, M. Popall, U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, A. Brauer, J. Serbin, and B. N. Chichkov, Adv. Eng. Mater. 5, 551 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. v. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chichkov, B.

Chichkov, B. N.

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, Opt. Lett. 28, 301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Houbertz, L. Frohlich, M. Popall, U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, A. Brauer, J. Serbin, and B. N. Chichkov, Adv. Eng. Mater. 5, 551 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cronauer, C.

Dannberg, P.

R. Houbertz, L. Frohlich, M. Popall, U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, A. Brauer, J. Serbin, and B. N. Chichkov, Adv. Eng. Mater. 5, 551 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, G. v. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domann, G.

Duan, X. M.

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, Thin Solid Films 453, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Egbert, A.

Fazlic, A.

M. Straub, L. H. Nguyen, A. Fazlic, and M. Gu, Opt. Mater. 27, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Freymann, G. v.

M. Deubel, G. v. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frohlich, L.

R. Houbertz, L. Frohlich, M. Popall, U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, A. Brauer, J. Serbin, and B. N. Chichkov, Adv. Eng. Mater. 5, 551 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fröhlich, L.

Galajda, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormosa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

L. H. Nguyen, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, L. H. Nguyen, A. Fazlic, and M. Gu, Opt. Mater. 27, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Houbertz, R.

R. Houbertz, L. Frohlich, M. Popall, U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, A. Brauer, J. Serbin, and B. N. Chichkov, Adv. Eng. Mater. 5, 551 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, Opt. Lett. 28, 301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaneko, K.

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, Thin Solid Films 453, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, Thin Solid Films 453, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 22, 132 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruo, S.

Matsuo, S.

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Misawaa, H.

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, O.

Nguyen, L. H.

L. H. Nguyen, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, L. H. Nguyen, A. Fazlic, and M. Gu, Opt. Mater. 27, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ormosa, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormosa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ostendorf, A.

Ovsianikov, A.

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. v. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popall, M.

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, Opt. Lett. 28, 301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Houbertz, L. Frohlich, M. Popall, U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, A. Brauer, J. Serbin, and B. N. Chichkov, Adv. Eng. Mater. 5, 551 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, J.

Serbin, J.

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. v. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Straub, M.

L. H. Nguyen, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, L. H. Nguyen, A. Fazlic, and M. Gu, Opt. Mater. 27, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Streppel, U.

R. Houbertz, L. Frohlich, M. Popall, U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, A. Brauer, J. Serbin, and B. N. Chichkov, Adv. Eng. Mater. 5, 551 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, Thin Solid Films 453, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H.-B.

T. Tanaka, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

M. Deubel, G. v. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Eng. Mater.

R. Houbertz, L. Frohlich, M. Popall, U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, A. Brauer, J. Serbin, and B. N. Chichkov, Adv. Eng. Mater. 5, 551 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

L. H. Nguyen, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormosa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

M. Deubel, G. v. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

M. Straub, L. H. Nguyen, A. Fazlic, and M. Gu, Opt. Mater. 27, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, Thin Solid Films 453, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical system for three-photon microfabrication.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Computer design of the component built.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM image of the component built by three-photon microstereolithography. The component was scanned using 15 layers at 750 μ m s and layer spacing of 1 μ m . The laser pulse energy used was 0.8 nJ , which corresponds to fluence of 0.1 J cm 2 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Magnification of the central area of the component of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Magnification of a feature of the component of Fig. 3, where the 500 nm resolution can be seen.

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