Abstract

We report beaming and enhanced transmission of electromagnetic waves by use of surface corrugated photonic crystals. The modes of a finite-size photonic crystal composed of dielectric rods in free space have been analyzed by the plane-wave expansion method. We show the existence of surface propagating modes when the surface of the finite-size photonic crystal is corrugated. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the transmission through photonic crystal waveguides can be substantially increased by the existence of surface propagating modes at the input surface. In addition, the power emitted from the photonic crystal waveguide is confined to a narrow angular region when an appropriate surface corrugation is added to the output surface of the photonic crystal.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3263 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Beaglehole, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 498 (1967).
  6. T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebessen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, Nanotechnology 13, 429 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, Opt. Express 13, 1666 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, Phys. Rev. B 69, 121402 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, Phys. Rev. B 69, 121402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebessen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, Nanotechnology 13, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

D. Beaglehole, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 498 (1967).

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Agio, M.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beaglehole, D.

D. Beaglehole, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 498 (1967).

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Birner, A.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brommer, K. D.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bulu, I.

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, Opt. Express 13, 1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Caglayan, H.

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, Opt. Express 13, 1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebessen, T. W.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebessen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, Nanotechnology 13, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, Phys. Rev. B 69, 121402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gosele, U.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kramper, P.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lewen, G. D.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebessen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, Nanotechnology 13, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebessen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, Nanotechnology 13, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebessen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, Nanotechnology 13, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, Phys. Rev. B 69, 121402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meade, R. D.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, E.

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, Phys. Rev. B 69, 121402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muller, F.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebessen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, Nanotechnology 13, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, Opt. Express 13, 1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebessen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, Nanotechnology 13, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rappe, A. M.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebessen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, Nanotechnology 13, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebessen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, Nanotechnology 13, 429 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, Phys. Rev. B 69, 121402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Beaglehole, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 498 (1967).

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) TM (electric field parallel to the axis of the rods) band structure of the infinite-size PC. (b) Band structure of the finite-size PC. (c) Band structure of the finite-size PC when the corrugation is added. (d) Enlarged view of (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured reflection spectrum from (curve A) the bare PC surface, (B) from the PC surface with an added corrugated layer, (C) from the corrugated PC surface when the gratinglike structure is added.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Curve A, measured and B, calculated transmission spectrum through the PC waveguide; curve C, measured and, D, calculated transmission spectrum through the PC waveguide when the surface corrugation and the gratinglike structure is added in front of the input surface of the PC waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured far-field radiation pattern of the EM waves emitted from the PC waveguide at 12.45 GHz . (b) Measured far-field radiation pattern of EM waves emitted from the PC waveguide with surface corrugation and a gratinglike layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured intensity distribution at the exit side of the PC waveguide when the corrugation and gratinglike layer are added to the exit surface of the PC waveguide. The Y axis is parallel to the PC surface.

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