Abstract

In polymeric films of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) a photoconversion product, which was named the F620 state, was observed on excitation of the film with 532nm nanosecond laser pulses. This photoproduct shows a strong nonlinear absorption. Such BR films can be used for write-once–read-many (WORM) optical data storage. We demonstrate that a photoproduct similar or even identical to that obtained with nanosecond pulses is generated on excitation with 532nm femtosecond pulses. This photoproduct also shows strong anisotropic absorption, which facilitates polarization storage of data. The product is thermally stable and is irretrievable to the initial B state either by photochemical reaction or through a thermal pathway. The experimental results indicate that the product is formed by a two-photon absorption process. Optical WORM storage is demonstrated by use of two polarization states, but more polarization states may be used. The combination of polarization data multiplexing and extremely short recording time in the femtosecond range enables very high data volumes to be stored within a very short time.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Hampp, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 100, 1755 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Juchem, M. Sanio, and N. Hampp, Opt. Lett. 27, 1607 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Huang, G. Siganakis, M. G. Jim Moharam, and S. Wu, Opt. Lett. 29, 1933 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Wu, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, and B. S. DeCristofano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3888 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. D. Koek, N. Bhattacharya, J. J. M. Braat, V. S. S. Chan, and J. Westerweel, Opt. Lett. 29, 101 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. A. Ferrari, E. Garbusi, and E. M. Frins, Opt. Lett. 28, 1454 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Okada-Shudo, J. M. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 2803 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Ya. Korchemskaya, D. A. Stepanchikov, and T. V. Dyukova, Opt. Mater. 14, 185 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. R. Birge, Am. Sci. 82, 348 (1994).
  11. R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Czégé and L. Reinisch, Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 659 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. B. Masthay, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and D. M. Sammeth, Photochem. Photobiol. Special issue  67S, 27S (1988).
  15. D. M. Sammeth, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. J. C. deBaca, G. A. Gerholt, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and M. B. Masthay, Book of Abstracts, 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, March 26–30, 2000, Phys-346.
  16. T. Fischer, M. Neebe, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 1 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Guessous, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, Proc. SPIE 5310, 369 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, and N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. W. Milton, D. J. Eyre, and J. V. Mantese, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3062 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave and M. A. Fiddy, Appl. Opt. 38, 815 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2005

T. Fischer and N. Hampp, Biophys. J. 89, 1175 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

T. Fischer, M. Neebe, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Ferrari, E. Garbusi, and E. M. Frins, Opt. Lett. 28, 1454 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

P. Wu, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, and B. S. DeCristofano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Juchem, M. Sanio, and N. Hampp, Opt. Lett. 27, 1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada-Shudo, J. M. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 2803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

E. Ya. Korchemskaya, D. A. Stepanchikov, and T. V. Dyukova, Opt. Mater. 14, 185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Hampp, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 100, 1755 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave and M. A. Fiddy, Appl. Opt. 38, 815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. W. Milton, D. J. Eyre, and J. V. Mantese, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3062 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. R. Birge, Am. Sci. 82, 348 (1994).

1993

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

J. Czégé and L. Reinisch, Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 659 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. B. Masthay, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and D. M. Sammeth, Photochem. Photobiol. Special issue  67S, 27S (1988).

1985

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, and N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, N.

Birge, R. R.

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Birge, Am. Sci. 82, 348 (1994).

Braat, J. J. M.

Bräuchle, C.

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckman, C. B.

M. B. Masthay, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and D. M. Sammeth, Photochem. Photobiol. Special issue  67S, 27S (1988).

D. M. Sammeth, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. J. C. deBaca, G. A. Gerholt, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and M. B. Masthay, Book of Abstracts, 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, March 26–30, 2000, Phys-346.

Burykin, N. M.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, and N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chan, V. S. S.

Chen, J.

M. B. Masthay, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and D. M. Sammeth, Photochem. Photobiol. Special issue  67S, 27S (1988).

D. M. Sammeth, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. J. C. deBaca, G. A. Gerholt, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and M. B. Masthay, Book of Abstracts, 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, March 26–30, 2000, Phys-346.

Czégé, J.

J. Czégé and L. Reinisch, Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 659 (1991).
[CrossRef]

deBaca, M. J. C.

D. M. Sammeth, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. J. C. deBaca, G. A. Gerholt, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and M. B. Masthay, Book of Abstracts, 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, March 26–30, 2000, Phys-346.

DeCristofano, B. S.

P. Wu, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, and B. S. DeCristofano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dukova, T. V.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, and N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dyukova, T. V.

E. Ya. Korchemskaya, D. A. Stepanchikov, and T. V. Dyukova, Opt. Mater. 14, 185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eyre, D. J.

G. W. Milton, D. J. Eyre, and J. V. Mantese, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3062 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, J. A.

Fiddy, M. A.

Fischer, T.

T. Fischer and N. Hampp, Biophys. J. 89, 1175 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fischer, M. Neebe, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frins, E. M.

Garbusi, E.

Gerholt, G. A.

D. M. Sammeth, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. J. C. deBaca, G. A. Gerholt, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and M. B. Masthay, Book of Abstracts, 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, March 26–30, 2000, Phys-346.

Gillespie, N. B.

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guessous, F.

F. Guessous, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, Proc. SPIE 5310, 369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hampp, N.

T. Fischer and N. Hampp, Biophys. J. 89, 1175 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Guessous, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, Proc. SPIE 5310, 369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fischer, M. Neebe, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Juchem, M. Sanio, and N. Hampp, Opt. Lett. 27, 1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Hampp, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 100, 1755 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helvenston, M. C.

M. B. Masthay, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and D. M. Sammeth, Photochem. Photobiol. Special issue  67S, 27S (1988).

D. M. Sammeth, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. J. C. deBaca, G. A. Gerholt, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and M. B. Masthay, Book of Abstracts, 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, March 26–30, 2000, Phys-346.

Huang, Y.

Izaguirre, E. W.

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jim Moharam, M. G.

Jonathan, J. M.

Y. Okada-Shudo, J. M. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 2803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Juchem, T.

F. Guessous, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, Proc. SPIE 5310, 369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fischer, M. Neebe, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Juchem, M. Sanio, and N. Hampp, Opt. Lett. 27, 1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, B. R.

P. Wu, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, and B. S. DeCristofano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koek, W. D.

Kofron, J. T.

M. B. Masthay, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and D. M. Sammeth, Photochem. Photobiol. Special issue  67S, 27S (1988).

D. M. Sammeth, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. J. C. deBaca, G. A. Gerholt, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and M. B. Masthay, Book of Abstracts, 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, March 26–30, 2000, Phys-346.

Korchemskaya, E. Ya.

E. Ya. Korchemskaya, D. A. Stepanchikov, and T. V. Dyukova, Opt. Mater. 14, 185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, and N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kusnetzow, A.

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, A. F.

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mantese, J. V.

G. W. Milton, D. J. Eyre, and J. V. Mantese, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3062 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Masthay, M. B.

M. B. Masthay, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and D. M. Sammeth, Photochem. Photobiol. Special issue  67S, 27S (1988).

D. M. Sammeth, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. J. C. deBaca, G. A. Gerholt, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and M. B. Masthay, Book of Abstracts, 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, March 26–30, 2000, Phys-346.

Milton, G. W.

G. W. Milton, D. J. Eyre, and J. V. Mantese, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3062 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, M.

P. Wu, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, and B. S. DeCristofano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neebe, M.

T. Fischer, M. Neebe, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oesterhelt, D.

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okada-Shudo, Y.

Y. Okada-Shudo, J. M. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 2803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Popp, A.

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

P. Wu, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, and B. S. DeCristofano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reinisch, L.

J. Czégé and L. Reinisch, Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 659 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, G.

Y. Okada-Shudo, J. M. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 2803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sammeth, D. M.

M. B. Masthay, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and D. M. Sammeth, Photochem. Photobiol. Special issue  67S, 27S (1988).

D. M. Sammeth, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. J. C. deBaca, G. A. Gerholt, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and M. B. Masthay, Book of Abstracts, 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, March 26–30, 2000, Phys-346.

Sánchez-de-la-Llave, D.

Sanio, M.

Schmidt, E.

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seetharaman, S.

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siganakis, G.

Singh, D.

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M. S.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, and N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stepanchikov, D. A.

E. Ya. Korchemskaya, D. A. Stepanchikov, and T. V. Dyukova, Opt. Mater. 14, 185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, J. A.

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taranenko, V. B.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, and N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vsevolodov, N. N.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, and N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Q.

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Westerweel, J.

Wise, K. J.

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolperdinger, M.

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, P.

P. Wu, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, and B. S. DeCristofano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Am. Sci.

R. R. Birge, Am. Sci. 82, 348 (1994).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Wu, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, and B. S. DeCristofano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fischer and N. Hampp, Biophys. J. 89, 1175 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.)

N. Hampp, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 100, 1755 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci.

T. Fischer, M. Neebe, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

R. R. Birge, N. B. Gillespie, E. W. Izaguirre, A. Kusnetzow, A. F. Lawrence, D. Singh, S. Q. Wang, E. Schmidt, J. A. Stuart, S. Seetharaman, and K. J. Wise, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, and N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham)

Y. Okada-Shudo, J. M. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 2803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

E. Ya. Korchemskaya, D. A. Stepanchikov, and T. V. Dyukova, Opt. Mater. 14, 185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol.

J. Czégé and L. Reinisch, Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 659 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Masthay, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and D. M. Sammeth, Photochem. Photobiol. Special issue  67S, 27S (1988).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. W. Milton, D. J. Eyre, and J. V. Mantese, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3062 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

F. Guessous, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, Proc. SPIE 5310, 369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. M. Sammeth, C. B. Buckman, J. Chen, M. J. C. deBaca, G. A. Gerholt, M. C. Helvenston, J. T. Kofron, and M. B. Masthay, Book of Abstracts, 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, March 26–30, 2000, Phys-346.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A, Spots of F state produced by single femtosecond-pulse excitation (1–5 shots) of the BR film. The single laser pulse is 640 nm , 130 fs , and 100 nJ . The BR film is observed under a microscope by placing it between two orthogonal polarizers. B, Dichroic spectra of the F state and the isotropic spectrum of the initial B state. D and D , optical density of the sample parallel and perpendicular to the polarization orientation of the excitation light, respectively. D 0 , optical density of the initial B state.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoinduced birefringence spectrum ( Δ n ) of the F state calculated by the Kramers–Kronig relation according to the dichroic spectrum ( Δ D ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the selective readout of data images on the angle between the polarizer and the BR film. A, DATA1 readout image when the BR film is rotated to 45°; B, DATA2 readout image when the BR film is rotated to 0°; C, DATA 1 + DATA 2 readout image when the BR film deviates from 0° or 45°. In each image a calibration scale ( 10 μ m division ) is shown.

Equations (1)

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T = 1 4 T p T A sin 2 ( 2 α ) [ T T 2 T T cos ( Δ φ ) ] .

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