Abstract

We investigated the third-order nonlinear optical properties of several donor-substituted cyanoethynylethene molecules in the zero-frequency limit. We observed nonlinearities that are extraordinarily large relative to the small molecular mass of these molecules and that are within a factor of 50 from the fundamental limit. At a wavelength of 1.5μm, the rotational average of the third-order molecular polarizability is 53±13×1048m5V2(3.8×1033esu) for the best molecule, which corresponds to 1.7×1048m5V2 per delocalized electron. The high nonlinear efficiency of these molecules is due to the compact two-dimensional conjugated system and the effective donor–acceptor substitution patterns.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. N.P. Moonen, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, and F. Diederich, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 41, 3044 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. N.P. Moonen, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2032 (2003).
  3. N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Michinobu, J. C. May, J. H. Lim, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, I. Biaggio, and F. Diederich, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 6, 737 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. G. Kuzyk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1218 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. G. Kuzyk, Opt. Lett. 25, 1183 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. G. Kuzyk, Opt. Lett. 28, 135 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Barzoukas and M. Blanchard-Desce, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 3951 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. Gubler, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, M. Y. Balakina, J. Cornil, J. L. Brédas, R. E. Martin, and F. Diederich, Opt. Lett. 24, 1599 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. U. Gubler, R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, R. R. Tykwinski, and F. Diederich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2396 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. We do not consider here the claim of Ref. [13] of an even smaller value of ?c??rot for several reasons: (a) a numerical error made the calculated ?c too small by a factor of 6, (b) the material investigated was a polymer whose nonlinearity was determined by absolute Z-scan measurements,[14] and (c) in such a material it is difficult to estimate an effective molecular unit and its density with which to calculate ?c and ?rot.
  13. Q. Chen, L. Kuang, Z. Y. Wang, and E. H. Sargent, Nano Lett. 4, 1673 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Chen, L. Kuang, E. H. Sargent, and Z. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2115 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Michinobu, J. C. May, J. H. Lim, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, I. Biaggio, and F. Diederich, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 6, 737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, Z. Y. Wang, and E. H. Sargent, Nano Lett. 4, 1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, E. H. Sargent, and Z. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kuzyk, Opt. Lett. 28, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. N.P. Moonen, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, and F. Diederich, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 41, 3044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. G. Kuzyk, Opt. Lett. 25, 1183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kuzyk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1218 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Barzoukas and M. Blanchard-Desce, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 3951 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

U. Gubler, R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, R. R. Tykwinski, and F. Diederich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balakina, M. Y.

Barzoukas, M.

M. Barzoukas and M. Blanchard-Desce, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 3951 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

T. Michinobu, J. C. May, J. H. Lim, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, I. Biaggio, and F. Diederich, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 6, 737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard-Desce, M.

M. Barzoukas and M. Blanchard-Desce, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 3951 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

U. Gubler, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, M. Y. Balakina, J. Cornil, J. L. Brédas, R. E. Martin, and F. Diederich, Opt. Lett. 24, 1599 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Gubler, R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, R. R. Tykwinski, and F. Diederich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, C.

N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Michinobu, J. C. May, J. H. Lim, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, I. Biaggio, and F. Diederich, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 6, 737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, and F. Diederich, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 41, 3044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2032 (2003).

Brédas, J. L.

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, Z. Y. Wang, and E. H. Sargent, Nano Lett. 4, 1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, E. H. Sargent, and Z. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cornil, J.

Diederich, F.

N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Michinobu, J. C. May, J. H. Lim, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, I. Biaggio, and F. Diederich, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 6, 737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, and F. Diederich, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 41, 3044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Gubler, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, M. Y. Balakina, J. Cornil, J. L. Brédas, R. E. Martin, and F. Diederich, Opt. Lett. 24, 1599 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Gubler, R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, R. R. Tykwinski, and F. Diederich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2032 (2003).

Du, S.

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, M.

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gisselbrecht, J.-P.

N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Michinobu, J. C. May, J. H. Lim, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, I. Biaggio, and F. Diederich, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 6, 737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, and F. Diederich, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 41, 3044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2032 (2003).

Gist, R.

N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2032 (2003).

Gross, M.

N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Michinobu, J. C. May, J. H. Lim, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, I. Biaggio, and F. Diederich, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 6, 737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, and F. Diederich, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 41, 3044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2032 (2003).

Gubler, U.

U. Gubler, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, M. Y. Balakina, J. Cornil, J. L. Brédas, R. E. Martin, and F. Diederich, Opt. Lett. 24, 1599 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Gubler, R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, R. R. Tykwinski, and F. Diederich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

U. Gubler, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, M. Y. Balakina, J. Cornil, J. L. Brédas, R. E. Martin, and F. Diederich, Opt. Lett. 24, 1599 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Gubler, R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, R. R. Tykwinski, and F. Diederich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Irie, M.

N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2032 (2003).

Jiang, G.

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, T.

N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2032 (2003).

Kishioka, A.

N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2032 (2003).

Kuang, L.

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, Z. Y. Wang, and E. H. Sargent, Nano Lett. 4, 1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, E. H. Sargent, and Z. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuzyk, M. G.

Lim, J. H.

T. Michinobu, J. C. May, J. H. Lim, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, I. Biaggio, and F. Diederich, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 6, 737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. E.

May, J. C.

T. Michinobu, J. C. May, J. H. Lim, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, I. Biaggio, and F. Diederich, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 6, 737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michinobu, T.

T. Michinobu, J. C. May, J. H. Lim, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, I. Biaggio, and F. Diederich, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 6, 737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moonen, N. N.P.

N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, and F. Diederich, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 41, 3044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2032 (2003).

Pomerantz, W. C.

N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, Z. Y. Wang, and E. H. Sargent, Nano Lett. 4, 1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, E. H. Sargent, and Z. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, P.

T. Michinobu, J. C. May, J. H. Lim, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, I. Biaggio, and F. Diederich, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 6, 737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, and F. Diederich, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 41, 3044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. N.P. Moonen, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2032 (2003).

Song, Y.

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spreiter, R.

U. Gubler, R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, R. R. Tykwinski, and F. Diederich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tykwinski, R. R.

U. Gubler, R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, R. R. Tykwinski, and F. Diederich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. Y.

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, Z. Y. Wang, and E. H. Sargent, Nano Lett. 4, 1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, E. H. Sargent, and Z. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Y.

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, W.

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

G. Jiang, T. Michinobu, W. Yuan, M. Feng, Y. Wen, S. Du, H. Gao, L. Jiang, Y. Song, F. Diederich, and D. Zhu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 17, 2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. (1)

N. N.P. Moonen, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, and F. Diederich, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 41, 3044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

U. Gubler, R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, R. R. Tykwinski, and F. Diederich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, E. H. Sargent, and Z. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) (1)

T. Michinobu, J. C. May, J. H. Lim, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, M. Gross, I. Biaggio, and F. Diederich, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 6, 737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem.-Eur. J. (1)

N. N.P. Moonen, W. C. Pomerantz, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Chem.-Eur. J. 11, 3325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Barzoukas and M. Blanchard-Desce, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 3951 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, Z. Y. Wang, and E. H. Sargent, Nano Lett. 4, 1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. G. Kuzyk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1218 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

N. N.P. Moonen, R. Gist, C. Boudon, J.-P. Gisselbrecht, P. Seiler, T. Kawai, A. Kishioka, M. Gross, M. Irie, and F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2032 (2003).

We do not consider here the claim of Ref. [13] of an even smaller value of ?c??rot for several reasons: (a) a numerical error made the calculated ?c too small by a factor of 6, (b) the material investigated was a polymer whose nonlinearity was determined by absolute Z-scan measurements,[14] and (c) in such a material it is difficult to estimate an effective molecular unit and its density with which to calculate ?c and ?rot.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecules investigated in this study. Their π-electron conjugation can be understood in terms of the trans (a), cis (b), and (less-effective) cross (c) conjugation paths shown for molecule 3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Circles, experimental γ rot versus N 2 λ max 5 for the molecules in Table 1. The open circle is molecule 5. The order of the data points with increasing N 2 λ 5 follows the sequence in Table 1. The slope of the straight line is K c 50 . The triangles are the data of the poly(triacetylene) oligomers from Ref. [10] up to 12 monomer units. The crosses are the data from Ref. [11].

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Third-Order Polarizabilities a

Equations (2)

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χ 1111 ( 3 ) , S = χ 1111 ( 3 ) , DCM + f 4 ρ N A γ rot M C .
γ c = ( e 4 4 ϵ 0 m 2 ) ( N 2 E 10 5 ) ,

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