Abstract

A technique based on an FM/AM method is proposed for measuring the linewidth enhancement factor α of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser. A standard rate equation model is complemented with temperature effects to explain the observed behavior under pump modulation. The result α=0.25±0.13 agrees with values deduced from recent optical injection experiments.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer Academic, 1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics European Quantum Electronics Conference Munich, Germany, June 12–17, 2005.
  5. S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, Opt. Commun. 254, 282 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, Phys. Rev. A 72, 033810 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Harder, K. Vahala, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 328 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Möller, E. Zeeb, U. Fielder, T. Hackbarth, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 921 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Schimpe, J. E. Bowers, and T. L. Koch, Electron. Lett. 22, 453 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Fordell and Å. M. Lindberg, Opt. Commun. 242, 613 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Valling, B. Ståhlberg, and Å. M. Lindberg, “Tunable feedback loop for suppression of relaxation oscillations in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Laser Technol.
    [CrossRef]
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2005 (2)

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, Opt. Commun. 254, 282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, Phys. Rev. A 72, 033810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. Szwaj, E. Lacot, and O. Hugon, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fordell and Å. M. Lindberg, Opt. Commun. 242, 613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. B. Simpson, F. Doft, E. Strzelecka, J. J. Liu, W. Chang, and G. J. Simonis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

B. Möller, E. Zeeb, U. Fielder, T. Hackbarth, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 921 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

R. Schimpe, J. E. Bowers, and T. L. Koch, Electron. Lett. 22, 453 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

C. Harder, K. Vahala, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 328 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. Sardar and R. C. Powell, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2829 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Alsing, P. M.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bibeau, C.

Bowers, J. E.

R. Schimpe, J. E. Bowers, and T. L. Koch, Electron. Lett. 22, 453 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

T. B. Simpson, F. Doft, E. Strzelecka, J. J. Liu, W. Chang, and G. J. Simonis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J.

Doft, F.

T. B. Simpson, F. Doft, E. Strzelecka, J. J. Liu, W. Chang, and G. J. Simonis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, K. J.

B. Möller, E. Zeeb, U. Fielder, T. Hackbarth, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 921 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fielder, U.

B. Möller, E. Zeeb, U. Fielder, T. Hackbarth, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 921 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992), pp. 549–558.

Fordell, T.

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, Phys. Rev. A 72, 033810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, Opt. Commun. 254, 282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fordell and Å. M. Lindberg, Opt. Commun. 242, 613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics European Quantum Electronics Conference Munich, Germany, June 12–17, 2005.

Gavrielides, A.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

Hackbarth, T.

B. Möller, E. Zeeb, U. Fielder, T. Hackbarth, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 921 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harder, C.

C. Harder, K. Vahala, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 328 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hugon, O.

C. Szwaj, E. Lacot, and O. Hugon, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Koch, T. L.

R. Schimpe, J. E. Bowers, and T. L. Koch, Electron. Lett. 22, 453 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kovanis, V.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lacot, E.

C. Szwaj, E. Lacot, and O. Hugon, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, Å. M.

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, Opt. Commun. 254, 282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, Phys. Rev. A 72, 033810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fordell and Å. M. Lindberg, Opt. Commun. 242, 613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Valling, B. Ståhlberg, and Å. M. Lindberg, “Tunable feedback loop for suppression of relaxation oscillations in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Laser Technol.
[CrossRef]

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics European Quantum Electronics Conference Munich, Germany, June 12–17, 2005.

Liu, J. J.

T. B. Simpson, F. Doft, E. Strzelecka, J. J. Liu, W. Chang, and G. J. Simonis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Möller, B.

B. Möller, E. Zeeb, U. Fielder, T. Hackbarth, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 921 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, A.

Nozawa, Y.

Payne, S. A.

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer Academic, 1991).

Powell, H. T.

Powell, R. C.

D. Sardar and R. C. Powell, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2829 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992), pp. 549–558.

Sardar, D.

D. Sardar and R. C. Powell, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2829 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schimpe, R.

R. Schimpe, J. E. Bowers, and T. L. Koch, Electron. Lett. 22, 453 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Simonis, G. J.

T. B. Simpson, F. Doft, E. Strzelecka, J. J. Liu, W. Chang, and G. J. Simonis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, T. B.

T. B. Simpson, F. Doft, E. Strzelecka, J. J. Liu, W. Chang, and G. J. Simonis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ståhlberg, B.

S. Valling, B. Ståhlberg, and Å. M. Lindberg, “Tunable feedback loop for suppression of relaxation oscillations in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Laser Technol.
[CrossRef]

Strzelecka, E.

T. B. Simpson, F. Doft, E. Strzelecka, J. J. Liu, W. Chang, and G. J. Simonis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Szwaj, C.

C. Szwaj, E. Lacot, and O. Hugon, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992), pp. 549–558.

Vahala, K.

C. Harder, K. Vahala, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 328 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Valling, S.

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, Opt. Commun. 254, 282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, Phys. Rev. A 72, 033810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics European Quantum Electronics Conference Munich, Germany, June 12–17, 2005.

S. Valling, B. Ståhlberg, and Å. M. Lindberg, “Tunable feedback loop for suppression of relaxation oscillations in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Laser Technol.
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992), pp. 549–558.

Yariv, A.

C. Harder, K. Vahala, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 328 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zeeb, E.

B. Möller, E. Zeeb, U. Fielder, T. Hackbarth, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 921 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Harder, K. Vahala, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 328 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Schimpe, J. E. Bowers, and T. L. Koch, Electron. Lett. 22, 453 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. Möller, E. Zeeb, U. Fielder, T. Hackbarth, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 921 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, F. Doft, E. Strzelecka, J. J. Liu, W. Chang, and G. J. Simonis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Sardar and R. C. Powell, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2829 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

T. Fordell and Å. M. Lindberg, Opt. Commun. 242, 613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, Opt. Commun. 254, 282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, Phys. Rev. A 72, 033810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Szwaj, E. Lacot, and O. Hugon, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Valling, T. Fordell, and Å. M. Lindberg, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics European Quantum Electronics Conference Munich, Germany, June 12–17, 2005.

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer Academic, 1991).

S. Valling, B. Ståhlberg, and Å. M. Lindberg, “Tunable feedback loop for suppression of relaxation oscillations in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Laser Technol.
[CrossRef]

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992), pp. 549–558.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: LD1, LD2, laser diodes; FI’s, Faraday isolators; L’s lenses; IF’s interference filters; BL, beam block; SG, signal generator; PD, photodetector; OSC, oscilloscope; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ratio of modulation indices as a function of frequency. Dashed curve, Eq. (1) with γ p = 0.33 × 10 6 s 1 and β = 0 . The solid curve includes temperature effects.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio of the positive and negative sideband intensities. The dotted curve was computed without temperature effects; the dashed curve, with only in-phase temperature effects, the solid curve includes a delay term as described in the text. All traces were plotted with β = 0 . The magnitude of the temperature contribution is the same in the two last-named cases.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M m = α 2 [ 1 + ( α β α ) 2 ( γ p Ω M ) 2 ] 1 2 ,
E ̇ = γ c 2 E + i ( ω 0 ω c ) E + Γ 2 g E ,
N ̇ = J γ s N 2 ϵ 0 n 2 ω 0 Re ( g ) E 2 ,
T ̇ = γ T ( T T 0 ) + κ T J ( J J 0 1 ) ,
Δ ω c ̇ = γ T Δ ω c + κ ω T κ T J ( J J 0 1 ) .

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