Abstract

We analyze the influence of heat generation caused by nonradiative transitions in a high-power 1.55μm double-clad erbium–ytterbium fiber laser on the Stark level population. At strong pumping rates, 1μm lasing can start as a result of parasitic reflections. We present a model that allows us to simulate the effect of self-generated heat on the Stark level population by using the MacCumber relation. Heat generation plays a significant role and improves the 1.5μm laser’s efficiency by increasing the 1μm lasing threshold.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. J. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. Grudinin, and S. Alam, in Proc. SPIE 4974, 50 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.
  3. Y. Wang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 731 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. A. Brilliant and L. Lagonik, Opt. Lett. 26, 1669 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. J. da Silva, M. T. de Araujo, E. A. Gouveia, and A. S. Gouveia-Neto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1287 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Yahel and A. Hardy, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2044 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. A. Sefler, W. D. Mack, G. C. Valley, and T. S. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1740 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bolshtyansky, P. Wysocki, and N. Conti, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1533 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. J. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. Grudinin, and S. Alam, in Proc. SPIE 4974, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Yahel and A. Hardy, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Brilliant and L. Lagonik, Opt. Lett. 26, 1669 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

Alam, S.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. J. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. Grudinin, and S. Alam, in Proc. SPIE 4974, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bolshtyansky, M.

Brilliant, N. A.

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. J. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. Grudinin, and S. Alam, in Proc. SPIE 4974, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Conti, N.

da Silva, C. J.

de Araujo, M. T.

Gouveia, E. A.

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

Grudinin, A.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. J. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. Grudinin, and S. Alam, in Proc. SPIE 4974, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, A.

Harschak, A.

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

Hoffman, H. J.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. J.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. J. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. Grudinin, and S. Alam, in Proc. SPIE 4974, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jetschke, S.

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

Kirchhof, J.

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

Lagonik, L.

Liem, A.

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

Limpert, J.

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

Mack, W. D.

Mörl, K.

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

Müller, H.-R.

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

Nilsson, J.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. J. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. Grudinin, and S. Alam, in Proc. SPIE 4974, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, V.

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

Rose, T. S.

Sahu, J. K.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. J. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. Grudinin, and S. Alam, in Proc. SPIE 4974, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sandrock, T.

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

Sefler, G. A.

Selvas, R.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. J. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. Grudinin, and S. Alam, in Proc. SPIE 4974, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

Unger, S.

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

Valley, G. C.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, P.

Yahel, E.

Zellmer, H.

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Wang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. J. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. Grudinin, and S. Alam, in Proc. SPIE 4974, 50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, V. Reichel, K. Mörl, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, H.-R. Müller, J. Kirchhof, T. Sandrock, and A. Harschak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPPD2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative population of the upper ( e g ) and lower ( a d ) Stark sublevels of ytterbium for T = 300 K (hatched bars) and T = 400 K (filled bars). The level structures from absorption and fluorescence measurements are shown at the right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of (a) ytterbium and (b) erbium absorption and gain with fiber temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of experimental values (from Ref. [1]) at 1.5 μ m (black filled squares) and 1 μ m (black filled circles); modeling results with temperature dependence at 1.5 μ m (gray filled squares with curves) and 1 μ m (gray filled circles with curves); modeling results without temperature dependence at 1.5 μ m (open squares with curves) and 1 μ m (open circles with curves).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Evolution of fiber temperature with launched pump power, assuming a simplified uniform distribution along the fiber. (b) Temperature distribution along the fiber for 350 and 200 W pump power.

Equations (3)

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T core = T air + Q a 2 2 k ( ln b a + k b h + 1 2 ) ,
T clad = T air + Q a 2 2 b h ,
σ a = σ e Z u Z l exp E Z L h v k B T .

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