Abstract

A complete two-dimensional imaging system based on a silicon monolithic array of 60 single-photon counters is presented. The fabricated solid-state array is rugged and operates at low voltages. Detection efficiency is higher than 40% in the visible range, and cross talk among 50μm pixels is lower than 104. The complete system provides a maximum throughput of 20kframess with truly parallel readout and nanosecond gating, thanks to the use of an integrated active quenching circuit for each pixel of the array. We report optical and electrical characterizations of the whole imaging system.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, and F. Paresce, in Proc. SPIE 3353, 224 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Rossi and I. Kallioniemi, in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 75 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 108–110.
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    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. Bonaccini, G. Bonanno, M. Belluso, R. Saletti, and R. Roncella, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1200 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. Bonaccini, G. Bonanno, M. Belluso, R. Saletti, and R. Roncella, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, and F. Paresce, in Proc. SPIE 3353, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1982 (1)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and G. Ripamonti, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 29, 599 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Belluso, M.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. Bonaccini, G. Bonanno, M. Belluso, R. Saletti, and R. Roncella, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Besse, P. A.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, in Proceedings of the IEEE 2004 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, (IEEE, 2004), pp. 705–708.

Bonaccini, D.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. Bonaccini, G. Bonanno, M. Belluso, R. Saletti, and R. Roncella, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, and F. Paresce, in Proc. SPIE 3353, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bonanno, G.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. Bonaccini, G. Bonanno, M. Belluso, R. Saletti, and R. Roncella, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Charbon, E.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, in Proceedings of the IEEE 2004 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, (IEEE, 2004), pp. 705–708.

Cova, S.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. Bonaccini, G. Bonanno, M. Belluso, R. Saletti, and R. Roncella, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and G. Ripamonti, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 29, 599 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dautet, H.

Deschampes, P.

Dion, B.

Dudziak, G.

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, and F. Paresce, in Proc. SPIE 3353, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giudice, A. C.

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glindemann, A.

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, and F. Paresce, in Proc. SPIE 3353, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gosch, M.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kallioniemi, I.

M. Rossi and I. Kallioniemi, in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 75 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 108–110.

Lasser, T.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Longoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and G. Ripamonti, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 29, 599 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lotito, A.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maccagnani, P.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. Bonaccini, G. Bonanno, M. Belluso, R. Saletti, and R. Roncella, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

MacGregor, A. D.

MacSween, D.

Mariotti, J.-M.

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, and F. Paresce, in Proc. SPIE 3353, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, R. J.

Niclass, C.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, in Proceedings of the IEEE 2004 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, (IEEE, 2004), pp. 705–708.

Paresce, F.

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, and F. Paresce, in Proc. SPIE 3353, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, R. S.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, and F. Paresce, in Proc. SPIE 3353, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rigler, R.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ripamonti, G.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and G. Ripamonti, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 29, 599 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, in Proceedings of the IEEE 2004 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, (IEEE, 2004), pp. 705–708.

Roncella, R.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. Bonaccini, G. Bonanno, M. Belluso, R. Saletti, and R. Roncella, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, M.

M. Rossi and I. Kallioniemi, in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 75 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 108–110.

Saletti, R.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. Bonaccini, G. Bonanno, M. Belluso, R. Saletti, and R. Roncella, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Serov, A.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tisa, S.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. Bonaccini, G. Bonanno, M. Belluso, R. Saletti, and R. Roncella, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, C.

Webb, P.

Zappa, F.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. Bonaccini, G. Bonanno, M. Belluso, R. Saletti, and R. Roncella, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and G. Ripamonti, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 29, 599 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. Bonaccini, G. Bonanno, M. Belluso, R. Saletti, and R. Roncella, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, and F. Paresce, in Proc. SPIE 3353, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

“Photon Counting Detector Module, PDM Series,” datasheet, Micro Photon Devices, http://www.micro-photon-devices.com.

M. Rossi and I. Kallioniemi, in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 75 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 108–110.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, in Proceedings of the IEEE 2004 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, (IEEE, 2004), pp. 705–708.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Architecture of the SPADA imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SPADA chip (left) with 60 elements, each with four independent pixels (right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detection board, assembled with twelve 5 channel iAQC-modules and the SPADA sensor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Dark-counting rate of all sixty 50 μ m diameter pixels of a SPADA chip at different overvoltages and at room temperature. The elements are ordered by increasing dark counts.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross talk among 50 μ m pixels placed at increasing distance, at 5 V overvoltage.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Detection efficiency of SPADA pixels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images acquired by the SPADA at two levels of static illumination, with 500 μ s time slots.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sequential frames acquired by the SPADA: a bright spot is moving along the detector (10 ms for each frame).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fast-transient imaging at 20 k frames s : the pixels are illuminated by a uniform 1 ms period saw-tooth modulated light.

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