Abstract

An automatic focus map extraction method is presented that uses a modification of blind deconvolution for estimation of localized blurring functions. We use these local blurring functions [so-called point-spread functions (PSFs)] for extraction of focus areas on ordinary images. In this inverse task our goal is not image reconstruction but the estimation of localized PSFs and the relative focus map. Thus the method is less sensitive than general deconvolution is to noise and ill-posed deconvolution problems. The focus areas can be estimated without any knowledge of the shooting conditions or of the optical system used.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2002

2000

Y. Y. Schechner, N. Kiryati, and R. Basri, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 39, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Szirányi, Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl. 24, 381 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 13(3), 43 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988

1975

T. G. Stockham, T. M. Cannon, and R. B. Ingebretsen, Proc. IEEE 63, 678 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

L. B. Lucy, Astron. J. 79, 745 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

Ayers, G. R.

Basri, R.

Y. Y. Schechner, N. Kiryati, and R. Basri, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 39, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blanc-Faud, L.

N. Dey, L. Blanc-Faud, C. Zimmer, Z. Kam, J. C. Olivo-Marin, and J. Zerubia, in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2004), p. 1223.

Cannon, T. M.

T. G. Stockham, T. M. Cannon, and R. B. Ingebretsen, Proc. IEEE 63, 678 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Csordás, D.

L. Czúni and D. Csordás, in Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Very Low Bit-Rate Video CodingLecture Notes in Computer Science: Visual Content Proc. and Representation (Springer, 2003), p. 76.

Czúni, L.

L. Czúni and D. Csordás, in Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Very Low Bit-Rate Video CodingLecture Notes in Computer Science: Visual Content Proc. and Representation (Springer, 2003), p. 76.

Dainty, J. C.

Dey, N.

N. Dey, L. Blanc-Faud, C. Zimmer, Z. Kam, J. C. Olivo-Marin, and J. Zerubia, in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2004), p. 1223.

Dijk, J.

J. Dijk, M. van Ginkel, R. J. van Asselt, L. J. van Vliet, and P. W. Verbeek, in Proceedings of Advanced School for Computing and Imaging (ASCI, Delft, 2002), p. 39.

Hatzinakos, D.

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 13(3), 43 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hege, E. K.

Hopgood, J. R.

J. R. Hopgood and J. W. Rayner, in Proceedings of 1999 IEEE Workshop on Application of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 1999).

Ingebretsen, R. B.

T. G. Stockham, T. M. Cannon, and R. B. Ingebretsen, Proc. IEEE 63, 678 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jefferies, S. M.

Kam, Z.

N. Dey, L. Blanc-Faud, C. Zimmer, Z. Kam, J. C. Olivo-Marin, and J. Zerubia, in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2004), p. 1223.

Kiryati, N.

Y. Y. Schechner, N. Kiryati, and R. Basri, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 39, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kovács, L.

L. Kovács and T. Szirányi, in Proceedings of Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), p. 300.

Kundur, D.

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 13(3), 43 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lucy, L. B.

L. B. Lucy, Astron. J. 79, 745 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Matson, C. L. M.

Olivo-Marin, J. C.

N. Dey, L. Blanc-Faud, C. Zimmer, Z. Kam, J. C. Olivo-Marin, and J. Zerubia, in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2004), p. 1223.

Rayner, J. W.

J. R. Hopgood and J. W. Rayner, in Proceedings of 1999 IEEE Workshop on Application of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 1999).

Richardson, W. H.

Schechner, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Schechner, N. Kiryati, and R. Basri, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 39, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, K.

Stockham, T. G.

T. G. Stockham, T. M. Cannon, and R. B. Ingebretsen, Proc. IEEE 63, 678 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stoltenberg, K.

Szirányi, T.

T. Szirányi, Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl. 24, 381 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Kovács and T. Szirányi, in Proceedings of Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), p. 300.

van Asselt, R. J.

J. Dijk, M. van Ginkel, R. J. van Asselt, L. J. van Vliet, and P. W. Verbeek, in Proceedings of Advanced School for Computing and Imaging (ASCI, Delft, 2002), p. 39.

van Ginkel, M.

J. Dijk, M. van Ginkel, R. J. van Asselt, L. J. van Vliet, and P. W. Verbeek, in Proceedings of Advanced School for Computing and Imaging (ASCI, Delft, 2002), p. 39.

van Vliet, L. J.

J. Dijk, M. van Ginkel, R. J. van Asselt, L. J. van Vliet, and P. W. Verbeek, in Proceedings of Advanced School for Computing and Imaging (ASCI, Delft, 2002), p. 39.

Verbeek, P. W.

J. Dijk, M. van Ginkel, R. J. van Asselt, L. J. van Vliet, and P. W. Verbeek, in Proceedings of Advanced School for Computing and Imaging (ASCI, Delft, 2002), p. 39.

Zerubia, J.

N. Dey, L. Blanc-Faud, C. Zimmer, Z. Kam, J. C. Olivo-Marin, and J. Zerubia, in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2004), p. 1223.

Zimmer, C.

N. Dey, L. Blanc-Faud, C. Zimmer, Z. Kam, J. C. Olivo-Marin, and J. Zerubia, in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2004), p. 1223.

Astron. J.

L. B. Lucy, Astron. J. 79, 745 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag.

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 13(3), 43 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl.

T. Szirányi, Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl. 24, 381 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Vis.

Y. Y. Schechner, N. Kiryati, and R. Basri, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 39, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

T. G. Stockham, T. M. Cannon, and R. B. Ingebretsen, Proc. IEEE 63, 678 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. R. Hopgood and J. W. Rayner, in Proceedings of 1999 IEEE Workshop on Application of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 1999).

L. Czúni and D. Csordás, in Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Very Low Bit-Rate Video CodingLecture Notes in Computer Science: Visual Content Proc. and Representation (Springer, 2003), p. 76.

N. Dey, L. Blanc-Faud, C. Zimmer, Z. Kam, J. C. Olivo-Marin, and J. Zerubia, in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2004), p. 1223.

L. Kovács and T. Szirányi, in Proceedings of Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), p. 300.

J. Dijk, M. van Ginkel, R. J. van Asselt, L. J. van Vliet, and P. W. Verbeek, in Proceedings of Advanced School for Computing and Imaging (ASCI, Delft, 2002), p. 39.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Focus extraction by use of PSF estimations for all pixels (stop at 20 iterations; use relative error distance). Top, input; bottom, output; brighter area, better focus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Focus extraction by block-based PSF estimations for the images of Fig. 1. Top, in-focus maps; bottom, relative focus scales: 0, low; 3, high.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( f i g l ) = P ( g l f i ) P ( f i ) j P ( g l f j ) P ( f j ) .
P ( f i ) = l P ( f i g l ) = l P ( f i g l ) P ( g l )
P ( f i ) = l P ( g l f i ) P ( f i ) P ( g l ) j P ( g l f j ) P ( f j ) ,
P k + 1 ( f i ) = P k ( f i ) l P ( g l f i ) P ( g l ) j P ( g l f j ) P k ( f j ) ,
f i , k + 1 = f i , k l h i , l g l j h j , l f j , k = f i , k l h i , l g l j f j , k h j , l ,
f k + 1 = f k ( h k g f k h k ) .
f k + 1 ( r ) = f k ( r ) [ h k ( r ) g g k ] , g k = f k h k ( r ) ,
h k + 1 ( r ) = h k ( r ) T g k [ f k ( r ) g g k ] ,
F ( r ) = E r ( g , g k ) min [ E r ( , ) ] { max [ E r ( , ) ] min [ E r ( , ) ] } c .

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