Abstract

We present experimental results for what is to our knowledge the first spectral-hole-burning based rf spectrum analyzer to cover 10GHz of rf analysis bandwidth. The rf signal of interest is modulated onto an optical carrier, and the resultant optical sidebands are burned into the inhomogeneously broadened absorption band of a Tm3+:YAG crystal. At the same time a second, frequency-swept laser reads out the absorption profile, which is a double-sideband replica of the rf spectrum, and thus the rf spectrum can be deduced after spectral calibration of the nonlinear readout chirp. This initial demonstration shows spectral analysis covering 10GHz of bandwidth with >5500 spectral channels and provides 43dB of dynamic range.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. W. Barber, M. Tian, R. R. Reibel, and W. R. Babbitt, Opt. Express 10, 1145 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, J. Bregman, and J.- L. Le Gouët, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2003) (IEEE, 2003), p. 355.
  4. I. Lorgere, L. Menager, V. Lavielle, J.- L. Le Gouët, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda, and J. P. Huignard, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2459 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Colice, F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, R. K. Mohan, W. R. Babbitt, I. Lorgere, and J.- L. Le Gouët, Proc. SPIE 5557, 132 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, R. R. Reibel, T. Chang, K. D. Merkel, W. R. Babbitt, M. Colice, F. Schlottau, and K. H. Wagner, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2004) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 24–27.
  7. K. Merkel, R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, T. Chang, A. Olson, and W. Babbitt, J. Lumin. 107, 62 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Sun, G. M. Wang, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and M. J. M. Leask, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15443 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation (Springer-Verlag, 1982).
  11. N. M. Strickland, P. B. Sellin, Y. Sun, J. L. Carlsten, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1473 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Juncar and J. Pinard, Opt. Commun. 14, 438 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Juncar and J. Pinard, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 939 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Colice, F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, R. K. Mohan, W. R. Babbitt, I. Lorgere, and J.- L. Le Gouët, Proc. SPIE 5557, 132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Merkel, R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, T. Chang, A. Olson, and W. Babbitt, J. Lumin. 107, 62 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Lorgere, L. Menager, V. Lavielle, J.- L. Le Gouët, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda, and J. P. Huignard, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2459 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Barber, M. Tian, R. R. Reibel, and W. R. Babbitt, Opt. Express 10, 1145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

N. M. Strickland, P. B. Sellin, Y. Sun, J. L. Carlsten, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. M. Wang, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and M. J. M. Leask, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

P. Juncar and J. Pinard, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 939 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

P. Juncar and J. Pinard, Opt. Commun. 14, 438 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Babbitt, W.

K. Merkel, R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, T. Chang, A. Olson, and W. Babbitt, J. Lumin. 107, 62 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Babbitt, W. R.

M. Colice, F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, R. K. Mohan, W. R. Babbitt, I. Lorgere, and J.- L. Le Gouët, Proc. SPIE 5557, 132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Barber, M. Tian, R. R. Reibel, and W. R. Babbitt, Opt. Express 10, 1145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, R. R. Reibel, T. Chang, K. D. Merkel, W. R. Babbitt, M. Colice, F. Schlottau, and K. H. Wagner, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2004) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 24–27.

Bai, Y. S.

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Barber, Z. W.

Bregman, J.

F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, J. Bregman, and J.- L. Le Gouët, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2003) (IEEE, 2003), p. 355.

Carlson, N. W.

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Carlsten, J. L.

N. M. Strickland, P. B. Sellin, Y. Sun, J. L. Carlsten, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T.

K. Merkel, R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, T. Chang, A. Olson, and W. Babbitt, J. Lumin. 107, 62 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, R. R. Reibel, T. Chang, K. D. Merkel, W. R. Babbitt, M. Colice, F. Schlottau, and K. H. Wagner, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2004) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 24–27.

Cole, Z.

K. Merkel, R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, T. Chang, A. Olson, and W. Babbitt, J. Lumin. 107, 62 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, R. R. Reibel, T. Chang, K. D. Merkel, W. R. Babbitt, M. Colice, F. Schlottau, and K. H. Wagner, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2004) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 24–27.

Colice, M.

M. Colice, F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, R. K. Mohan, W. R. Babbitt, I. Lorgere, and J.- L. Le Gouët, Proc. SPIE 5557, 132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, R. R. Reibel, T. Chang, K. D. Merkel, W. R. Babbitt, M. Colice, F. Schlottau, and K. H. Wagner, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2004) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 24–27.

Cone, R. L.

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Strickland, P. B. Sellin, Y. Sun, J. L. Carlsten, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. M. Wang, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and M. J. M. Leask, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation (Springer-Verlag, 1982).

Dolfi, D.

I. Lorgere, L. Menager, V. Lavielle, J.- L. Le Gouët, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda, and J. P. Huignard, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2459 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Equall, R. W.

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. M. Wang, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and M. J. M. Leask, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

I. Lorgere, L. Menager, V. Lavielle, J.- L. Le Gouët, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda, and J. P. Huignard, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2459 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hutcheson, R. L.

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Juncar, P.

P. Juncar and J. Pinard, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 939 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Juncar and J. Pinard, Opt. Commun. 14, 438 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lavielle, V.

I. Lorgere, L. Menager, V. Lavielle, J.- L. Le Gouët, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda, and J. P. Huignard, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2459 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Le Gouët, J.- L.

M. Colice, F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, R. K. Mohan, W. R. Babbitt, I. Lorgere, and J.- L. Le Gouët, Proc. SPIE 5557, 132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Lorgere, L. Menager, V. Lavielle, J.- L. Le Gouët, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda, and J. P. Huignard, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2459 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, J. Bregman, and J.- L. Le Gouët, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2003) (IEEE, 2003), p. 355.

Leask, M. J. M.

Y. Sun, G. M. Wang, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and M. J. M. Leask, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lorgere, I.

M. Colice, F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, R. K. Mohan, W. R. Babbitt, I. Lorgere, and J.- L. Le Gouët, Proc. SPIE 5557, 132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Lorgere, L. Menager, V. Lavielle, J.- L. Le Gouët, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda, and J. P. Huignard, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2459 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Menager, L.

I. Lorgere, L. Menager, V. Lavielle, J.- L. Le Gouët, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda, and J. P. Huignard, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2459 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Merkel, K.

K. Merkel, R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, T. Chang, A. Olson, and W. Babbitt, J. Lumin. 107, 62 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Merkel, K. D.

R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, R. R. Reibel, T. Chang, K. D. Merkel, W. R. Babbitt, M. Colice, F. Schlottau, and K. H. Wagner, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2004) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 24–27.

Mohan, R. K.

K. Merkel, R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, T. Chang, A. Olson, and W. Babbitt, J. Lumin. 107, 62 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Colice, F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, R. K. Mohan, W. R. Babbitt, I. Lorgere, and J.- L. Le Gouët, Proc. SPIE 5557, 132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, R. R. Reibel, T. Chang, K. D. Merkel, W. R. Babbitt, M. Colice, F. Schlottau, and K. H. Wagner, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2004) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 24–27.

Mossberg, T. W.

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Olson, A.

K. Merkel, R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, T. Chang, A. Olson, and W. Babbitt, J. Lumin. 107, 62 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pinard, J.

P. Juncar and J. Pinard, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 939 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Juncar and J. Pinard, Opt. Commun. 14, 438 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Reibel, R. R.

Z. W. Barber, M. Tian, R. R. Reibel, and W. R. Babbitt, Opt. Express 10, 1145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, R. R. Reibel, T. Chang, K. D. Merkel, W. R. Babbitt, M. Colice, F. Schlottau, and K. H. Wagner, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2004) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 24–27.

Schlottau, F.

M. Colice, F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, R. K. Mohan, W. R. Babbitt, I. Lorgere, and J.- L. Le Gouët, Proc. SPIE 5557, 132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, R. R. Reibel, T. Chang, K. D. Merkel, W. R. Babbitt, M. Colice, F. Schlottau, and K. H. Wagner, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2004) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 24–27.

F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, J. Bregman, and J.- L. Le Gouët, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2003) (IEEE, 2003), p. 355.

Sellin, P. B.

N. M. Strickland, P. B. Sellin, Y. Sun, J. L. Carlsten, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strickland, N. M.

N. M. Strickland, P. B. Sellin, Y. Sun, J. L. Carlsten, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Strickland, P. B. Sellin, Y. Sun, J. L. Carlsten, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. M. Wang, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and M. J. M. Leask, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, C. W.

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tian, M.

Tonda, S.

I. Lorgere, L. Menager, V. Lavielle, J.- L. Le Gouët, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda, and J. P. Huignard, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2459 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, K.

M. Colice, F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, R. K. Mohan, W. R. Babbitt, I. Lorgere, and J.- L. Le Gouët, Proc. SPIE 5557, 132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, J. Bregman, and J.- L. Le Gouët, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2003) (IEEE, 2003), p. 355.

Wagner, K. H.

R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, R. R. Reibel, T. Chang, K. D. Merkel, W. R. Babbitt, M. Colice, F. Schlottau, and K. H. Wagner, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2004) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 24–27.

Wang, G. M.

Y. Sun, G. M. Wang, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and M. J. M. Leask, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (2)

K. Merkel, R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, T. Chang, A. Olson, and W. Babbitt, J. Lumin. 107, 62 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

I. Lorgere, L. Menager, V. Lavielle, J.- L. Le Gouët, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda, and J. P. Huignard, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2459 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Juncar and J. Pinard, Opt. Commun. 14, 438 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

Y. Sun, G. M. Wang, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and M. J. M. Leask, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Strickland, P. B. Sellin, Y. Sun, J. L. Carlsten, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Colice, F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, R. K. Mohan, W. R. Babbitt, I. Lorgere, and J.- L. Le Gouët, Proc. SPIE 5557, 132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. Juncar and J. Pinard, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 939 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. K. Mohan, Z. Cole, R. R. Reibel, T. Chang, K. D. Merkel, W. R. Babbitt, M. Colice, F. Schlottau, and K. H. Wagner, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2004) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 24–27.

F. Schlottau, K. Wagner, J. Bregman, and J.- L. Le Gouët, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP 2003) (IEEE, 2003), p. 355.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation (Springer-Verlag, 1982).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) High-bandwidth SHB spectrum analysis experiment: An EOM modulates the output of a frequency-stabilized ECDL with a 420 MHz square wave. The resultant spectrum is engraved in the SHB and read out in < 5 ms with a frequency ramped ECDL. As the frequency ramp has standard deviations of 20 MHz , a spectral reference (fiber based etalon) is simultaneously interrogated, facilitating spectral correction in low-bandwidth postprocessing. FSR, free spectral range; PBS; polarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the scaled SHB spectrum analyzer detector voltages (solid curve) with the decibel peaks of the even–odd harmonics of the 420 MHz square wave measured by an electronic spectrum analyzer (diamonds). Dashed curve, the compensating IBA scale factor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency error of the harmonic positions before (points) and after (solid curve) readout linearization. The standard deviation decreases from 20 to 0.8 MHz , which is below the system’s 1.8 MHz resolution (dashed curve).

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