Abstract

A dual-channel fiber-optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for self-referencing refractive-index measurements has been proposed. Most applications of fiber-optic SPR sensors are designed to measure the refractive index of a liquid or gas sample by measuring the signal from a single surface, the sensitivity and stability of which is easily affected by the fluctuation of external environmental conditions. We have designed a dual-channel fiber-optic surface sensor with two independent SPR signals from two areas of the same probe. A prototype sensor was fabricated and characterized. The preliminary experimental results demonstrate the characteristic responses of both SPR signals from two channels that independently correspond to the refractive index changes in the liquid samples with which they are in contact. The design could be extended to a multichannel sensor with further developments. The experimental results confirmed that one channel can be used as a reference sensor that could compensate for unexpected changes in bulk refraction or temperature and develop this sensor as a practicable high-sensitivity biosensing device.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005

Y. C. Kim, W. Peng, S. Banerji, and K. S. Booksh, Opt. Lett. 30, 2218 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Kim, S. Banerji, J. F. Masson, W. Peng, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 834 (2005).

Z. Zhang, H. Li, H. Liao, L. Nie, and S. Yao, Anal. Lett. 38, 203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 129, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Masson, L. A. Obando, S. Beaudoin, and K. S. Booksh, Talanta 62, 865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Parmpi and P. Kofinas, Biomaterials 25, 1969 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Obando, D. J. Gentleman, J. R. Holloway, and K. S. Booksh, Sens. Actuators B 100, 439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sharma and B. D. Gupta, Sens. Actuators B 100, 423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

P. Tobiska, O. Hugon, A. Trouillet, and H. Gagnaire, Sens. Actuators B 74, 168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Jenkins, R. Yin, and J. L. Jensen, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 126, 798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

L. A. Obando and K. S. Booksh, Anal. Chem. 71, 5116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Slavik, J. Homola, and J. Ctyroky, Sens. Actuators B 51, 311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Nenninger, J. B. Clendenning, C. E. Furlong, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 51, 38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Anal. Chem. 70, 703 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 45, 161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Kofinas and R. E. Cohen, Biomaterials 18, 1361 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerji, S.

Y. C. Kim, W. Peng, S. Banerji, and K. S. Booksh, Opt. Lett. 30, 2218 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Kim, S. Banerji, J. F. Masson, W. Peng, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 834 (2005).

Barnhart, M.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 129, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, T. M.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 129, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, S.

J. F. Masson, L. A. Obando, S. Beaudoin, and K. S. Booksh, Talanta 62, 865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C. H.

C. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Anal. Chem. 70, 703 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beumer, T. A. M.

C. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Anal. Chem. 70, 703 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Booksh, K. S.

Y. C. Kim, S. Banerji, J. F. Masson, W. Peng, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 834 (2005).

Y. C. Kim, W. Peng, S. Banerji, and K. S. Booksh, Opt. Lett. 30, 2218 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Masson, L. A. Obando, S. Beaudoin, and K. S. Booksh, Talanta 62, 865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 129, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Obando, D. J. Gentleman, J. R. Holloway, and K. S. Booksh, Sens. Actuators B 100, 439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Obando and K. S. Booksh, Anal. Chem. 71, 5116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, J.

Cahill, C. P.

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 45, 161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clendenning, J. B.

G. G. Nenninger, J. B. Clendenning, C. E. Furlong, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 51, 38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. E.

P. Kofinas and R. E. Cohen, Biomaterials 18, 1361 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ctyroky, J.

R. Slavik, J. Homola, and J. Ctyroky, Sens. Actuators B 51, 311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, G.

Furlong, C. E.

G. G. Nenninger, J. B. Clendenning, C. E. Furlong, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 51, 38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gagnaire, H.

P. Tobiska, O. Hugon, A. Trouillet, and H. Gagnaire, Sens. Actuators B 74, 168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gentleman, D. J.

L. A. Obando, D. J. Gentleman, J. R. Holloway, and K. S. Booksh, Sens. Actuators B 100, 439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

C. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Anal. Chem. 70, 703 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, B. D.

A. K. Sharma and B. D. Gupta, Sens. Actuators B 100, 423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, J. R.

L. A. Obando, D. J. Gentleman, J. R. Holloway, and K. S. Booksh, Sens. Actuators B 100, 439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavik, J. Homola, and J. Ctyroky, Sens. Actuators B 51, 311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hugon, O.

P. Tobiska, O. Hugon, A. Trouillet, and H. Gagnaire, Sens. Actuators B 74, 168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, A. L.

A. L. Jenkins, R. Yin, and J. L. Jensen, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 126, 798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. L.

A. L. Jenkins, R. Yin, and J. L. Jensen, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 126, 798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K. S.

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 45, 161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. C. Kim, W. Peng, S. Banerji, and K. S. Booksh, Opt. Lett. 30, 2218 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Kim, S. Banerji, J. F. Masson, W. Peng, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 834 (2005).

Kofinas, P.

P. Parmpi and P. Kofinas, Biomaterials 25, 1969 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kofinas and R. E. Cohen, Biomaterials 18, 1361 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

C. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Anal. Chem. 70, 703 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Z. Zhang, H. Li, H. Liao, L. Nie, and S. Yao, Anal. Lett. 38, 203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, H.

Z. Zhang, H. Li, H. Liao, L. Nie, and S. Yao, Anal. Lett. 38, 203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lorson, C. L.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 129, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, V.

Masson, J. F.

Y. C. Kim, S. Banerji, J. F. Masson, W. Peng, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 834 (2005).

J. F. Masson, L. A. Obando, S. Beaudoin, and K. S. Booksh, Talanta 62, 865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 129, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. E.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 129, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morris, K.

Nenninger, G. G.

G. G. Nenninger, J. B. Clendenning, C. E. Furlong, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 51, 38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nie, L.

Z. Zhang, H. Li, H. Liao, L. Nie, and S. Yao, Anal. Lett. 38, 203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nieman, R. A.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 129, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noe, L. J.

Obando, L. A.

L. A. Obando, D. J. Gentleman, J. R. Holloway, and K. S. Booksh, Sens. Actuators B 100, 439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Masson, L. A. Obando, S. Beaudoin, and K. S. Booksh, Talanta 62, 865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Obando and K. S. Booksh, Anal. Chem. 71, 5116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parmpi, P.

P. Parmpi and P. Kofinas, Biomaterials 25, 1969 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, W.

Y. C. Kim, S. Banerji, J. F. Masson, W. Peng, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 834 (2005).

Y. C. Kim, W. Peng, S. Banerji, and K. S. Booksh, Opt. Lett. 30, 2218 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Sharma, A. K.

A. K. Sharma and B. D. Gupta, Sens. Actuators B 100, 423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Slavik, R.

R. Slavik, J. Homola, and J. Ctyroky, Sens. Actuators B 51, 311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, B. P.

Tobiska, P.

P. Tobiska, O. Hugon, A. Trouillet, and H. Gagnaire, Sens. Actuators B 74, 168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trouillet, A.

P. Tobiska, O. Hugon, A. Trouillet, and H. Gagnaire, Sens. Actuators B 74, 168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S.

Z. Zhang, H. Li, H. Liao, L. Nie, and S. Yao, Anal. Lett. 38, 203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Nenninger, J. B. Clendenning, C. E. Furlong, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 51, 38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 45, 161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yin, R.

A. L. Jenkins, R. Yin, and J. L. Jensen, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 126, 798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, P. J.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 129, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, H. Li, H. Liao, L. Nie, and S. Yao, Anal. Lett. 38, 203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

L. A. Obando and K. S. Booksh, Anal. Chem. 71, 5116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Anal. Chem. 70, 703 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Lett.

Z. Zhang, H. Li, H. Liao, L. Nie, and S. Yao, Anal. Lett. 38, 203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.)

A. L. Jenkins, R. Yin, and J. L. Jensen, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 126, 798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 129, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Kim, S. Banerji, J. F. Masson, W. Peng, and K. S. Booksh, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 834 (2005).

Appl. Spectrosc.

Biomaterials

P. Parmpi and P. Kofinas, Biomaterials 25, 1969 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kofinas and R. E. Cohen, Biomaterials 18, 1361 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators B

P. Tobiska, O. Hugon, A. Trouillet, and H. Gagnaire, Sens. Actuators B 74, 168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavik, J. Homola, and J. Ctyroky, Sens. Actuators B 51, 311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 45, 161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Obando, D. J. Gentleman, J. R. Holloway, and K. S. Booksh, Sens. Actuators B 100, 439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sharma and B. D. Gupta, Sens. Actuators B 100, 423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Nenninger, J. B. Clendenning, C. E. Furlong, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 51, 38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Talanta

J. F. Masson, L. A. Obando, S. Beaudoin, and K. S. Booksh, Talanta 62, 865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the flat-tipped dual-channel fiber-optic SPR sensor system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SPR spectrum from the dual-channel flat-tipped fiber-optic sensor probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive-index calibration curves for the dual-channel SPR probe.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependence testing for the dual-channel SPR sensing probe.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ RI 1 = 956.448 n 419.765 ,
λ RI 2 = 849.369 n 531.956 ,
λ T 1 = 0.637 T + 734.760 ,
λ T 2 = 0.249 T + 607.237 ,

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