Abstract

We study surface-plasmon-enhanced terahertz transmission through subwavelength metallic hole arrays of sub-skin-depth thickness. Dynamic evolution of surface-plasmon resonance in terms of array thickness is characterized by use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the frequency range 0.1–4.5 THz. A critical thickness of lead array film is observed, above which surface-plasmon coupling of terahertz pulses begins and is enhanced rapidly as the array thickness is increased toward the skin depth. The experimental results indicate that high-efficiency extraordinary terahertz transmission can be achieved at an array thickness of only one third of skin depth.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W.-C. Tan, T. W. Preist, and R. J. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 62, 11134 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 29, 896 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. K. Azad, M. He, Y. Zhao, and W. Zhang, prepared a manuscript called “Effect of dielectric properties of metals on terahertz transmission through subwavelength hole arrays.”
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2005 (1)

A. K. Azad, Y. Zhao, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (7)

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Janke, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, L. Beckmann, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 205314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P.M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 29, 896 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, Opt. Express 12, 3664 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O’Hara, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, Opt. Express 12, 6397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. C.J. van der Valk and P. C.M. Planken, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Tan, T. W. Preist, and R. J. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 62, 11134 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Alexander, R. W.

Averitt, R. D.

Azad, A. K.

A. K. Azad, Y. Zhao, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, M. He, Y. Zhao, and W. Zhang, prepared a manuscript called “Effect of dielectric properties of metals on terahertz transmission through subwavelength hole arrays.”

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckmann, L.

C. Janke, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, L. Beckmann, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 205314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bischoff, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

C. Janke, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, L. Beckmann, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 205314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P.M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eng, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grafström, S.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Grupp, D. E.

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hashizume, J.

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

A. K. Azad, M. He, Y. Zhao, and W. Zhang, prepared a manuscript called “Effect of dielectric properties of metals on terahertz transmission through subwavelength hole arrays.”

Janke, C.

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P.M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Janke, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, L. Beckmann, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 205314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, F.

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

C. Janke, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, L. Beckmann, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 205314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P.M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Luo, Q.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

O’Hara, J.

Ordal, M. A.

Pellemans, H. P.M.

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P.M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C.M.

N. C.J. van der Valk and P. C.M. Planken, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Preist, T. W.

W.-C. Tan, T. W. Preist, and R. J. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 62, 11134 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qu, D.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Rivas, J. G.

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P.M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, J. Gómez

C. Janke, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, L. Beckmann, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 205314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, R. J.

W.-C. Tan, T. W. Preist, and R. J. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 62, 11134 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saxler, J.

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P.M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schotsch, C.

C. Janke, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, L. Beckmann, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 205314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shinada, S.

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W.-C.

W.-C. Tan, T. W. Preist, and R. J. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 62, 11134 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Thio, T.

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van der Valk, N. C.J.

N. C.J. van der Valk and P. C.M. Planken, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Wolff, P. A.

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

A. K. Azad, Y. Zhao, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 29, 896 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Azad, M. He, Y. Zhao, and W. Zhang, prepared a manuscript called “Effect of dielectric properties of metals on terahertz transmission through subwavelength hole arrays.”

Zhang, X.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

A. K. Azad, Y. Zhao, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, M. He, Y. Zhao, and W. Zhang, prepared a manuscript called “Effect of dielectric properties of metals on terahertz transmission through subwavelength hole arrays.”

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. C.J. van der Valk and P. C.M. Planken, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, Y. Zhao, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Janke, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, L. Beckmann, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 205314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P.M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Tan, T. W. Preist, and R. J. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 62, 11134 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. K. Azad, M. He, Y. Zhao, and W. Zhang, prepared a manuscript called “Effect of dielectric properties of metals on terahertz transmission through subwavelength hole arrays.”

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Frequency-dependent skin depths of Pb, Al, and Ag calculated from the published values of the dielectric constants. Vertical dotted line, the [ ± 1 , 0 ] surface-plasmon mode at 0.55 THz for the Pb–Si interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fourier-transformed spectra of the transmitted terahertz pulses through the reference and subwavelength Pb hole arrays of various film thicknesses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured amplitude transmission of Pb arrays of various thicknesses. The curves are vertically displaced for clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured peak amplitude of the [ ± 1 , 0 ] surface-plasmon mode at 0.55 THz as a function of Pb thickness (open circles, connected by a dashed curve to guide the eye). The solid curve is an exponential fit for the region of array thickness below 100 nm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k z = ( ω c ) ( ε m 2 ε m + ε d ) 1 2 ,
k z = ( ω c ) ε m .
δ = 1 Im ( k z ) = c ω 1 Im ( ε m ) .

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