Abstract

We report a fully integrated, passive, all-optical regenerator capable of terabit per second operation, based on a highly nonlinear chalcogenide (As2S3) glass rib waveguide followed by an integrated Bragg grating bandpass filter. We demonstrate a clear nonlinear power transfer curve with 1.4ps optical pulses, capable of improving the signal-to-noise ratio and reducing the bit error rate for digital signals.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, and H. Ohta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1125 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. V. Mamyshev, in 24th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 1998), p. 475.
  4. G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R.-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, and K. D. K. Feder, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 69 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), p. FD10-1.
  5. P. Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Ohman, S. Bischoff, B. Tromborg, and J. Mork, in Proceedings of 2003 5th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, p. 41.
  7. O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2779 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Asobe, Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Tanaka, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338, 340 (2004).
  10. R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. Brandon Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Spälter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S.-W. Cheong, and R. E. Slusher, Opt. Lett. 27, 363 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Express 12, 5140 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. O. Tsun, M. K. Islam, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Commun. 141, 65 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1390 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. C. M. Littler, M. Rochette, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 13, 3397 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. C. M. Littler, M. Rochette, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 13, 3397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, and H. Ohta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338, 340 (2004).

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. Brandon Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Express 12, 5140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

T. O. Tsun, M. K. Islam, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Commun. 141, 65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Balmefrezol, E.

Bennion, I.

P. Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, S.

F. Ohman, S. Bischoff, B. Tromborg, and J. Mork, in Proceedings of 2003 5th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, p. 41.

Blows, J. L.

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brandon Shaw, L.

Brindel, P.

Cheong, S.-W.

Chu, P. L.

T. O. Tsun, M. K. Islam, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Commun. 141, 65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B.

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

I. C. M. Littler, M. Rochette, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 13, 3397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.-J.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R.-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, and K. D. K. Feder, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 69 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), p. FD10-1.

Feder, K. D. K.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R.-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, and K. D. K. Feder, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 69 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), p. FD10-1.

Giles, C. R.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gray, A.

P. Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Her, T.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R.-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, and K. D. K. Feder, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 69 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), p. FD10-1.

Hodelin, J.

Huang, P. Z.

P. Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. Y.

Islam, M. K.

T. O. Tsun, M. K. Islam, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Commun. 141, 65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jarvis, R.

Joergensen, C.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R.-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, and K. D. K. Feder, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 69 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), p. FD10-1.

Katsufuji, T.

Khrushchev, I.

P. Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kutz, J. N.

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lavigne, B.

Leclerc, O.

Lenz, G.

Leuthold, J.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R.-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, and K. D. K. Feder, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 69 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), p. FD10-1.

Li, W.

Littler, I. C. M.

Luther-Davies, B.

Madsen, C. K.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, N.

Mamyshev, P. V.

P. V. Mamyshev, in 24th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 1998), p. 475.

Mok, J. T.

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mork, J.

F. Ohman, S. Bischoff, B. Tromborg, and J. Mork, in Proceedings of 2003 5th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, p. 41.

Moss, D.

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nogiwa, S.

N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, and H. Ohta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohman, F.

F. Ohman, S. Bischoff, B. Tromborg, and J. Mork, in Proceedings of 2003 5th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, p. 41.

Ohta, H.

N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, and H. Ohta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pierre, L.

Raybon, G.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R.-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, and K. D. K. Feder, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 69 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), p. FD10-1.

Rochette, M.

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. C. M. Littler, M. Rochette, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 13, 3397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rode, A.

Rouvillain, D.

Ruan, Y.

Sahara, A.

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J.

Seguineau, F.

Slusher, R. E.

Spälter, S.

Steinvurzel, P.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R.-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, and K. D. K. Feder, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 69 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), p. FD10-1.

Su, Y.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R.-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, and K. D. K. Feder, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 69 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), p. FD10-1.

Suzuki, K.

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338, 340 (2004).

Tromborg, B.

F. Ohman, S. Bischoff, B. Tromborg, and J. Mork, in Proceedings of 2003 5th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, p. 41.

Tsun, T. O.

T. O. Tsun, M. K. Islam, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Commun. 141, 65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, E.

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, and H. Ohta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, J.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, and H. Ohta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

K. Tanaka, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338, 340 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. O. Tsun, M. K. Islam, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Commun. 141, 65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

M. Asobe, Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

F. Ohman, S. Bischoff, B. Tromborg, and J. Mork, in Proceedings of 2003 5th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, p. 41.

P. V. Mamyshev, in 24th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 1998), p. 475.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R.-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, and K. D. K. Feder, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 69 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), p. FD10-1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of device operation. (a) The optical regenerator consists of a 5 cm long nonlinear As 2 S 3 rib waveguide (NLWG) where SPM-induced spectral broadening occurs, followed by an integrated Bragg grating bandpass filter (BPF), offset from the signal frequency, near the exit facet. (b) Input noise experiences less SPM spectral broadening than the signal does, and hence is attenuated more than the signal after filtering. (c) This produces a nonlinear power transfer curve and results in both optical signal-to-noise ratio and BER improvement

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Evolution of pulse spectra versus power through a bare waveguide with no grating filter, showing spectral broadening due to nonlinear SPM. (b) Transmission spectrum of the bandpass filter (formed by two sequential offset gratings) for TE polarized light, showing a passband of 2.8 nm near 1555.0 nm , offset by 3 nm from the carrier wavelength. (c) Sliced SPM broadened output spectra after the filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resulting S-shaped power transfer curve, enabling suppression of noise and BER improvement. The dotted curve is a guide to the eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Autocorrelation of input (solid) and output (dotted) pulses at high power. Pulses broaden from an inferred Gaussian width of 1.4 ps to 3.3 ps , because of grating edge dispersion and pulse–filter mismatch.

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