Abstract

Mach–Zehnder interferometer sensors based on dual strip antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) structures are proposed. By adjusting the degree of structural symmetry to control the coupling behavior of the dual strip ARROW, an interferometric sensor without any bending structures can be realized. Operating principles and an analysis of the device are discussed in detail.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 8, 103 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. J. Luff, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, R. Wilson, and D. J. Schiffrin, Opt. Lett. 21, 618 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 10, 209 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 40, 147 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 583 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Mann, U. Trutschel, C. Wachter, L. Leine, and F. Lederer, Opt. Lett. 16, 805 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Gehler, A. Bräuer, and W. Karthe, Electron. Lett. 30, 218 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y.-H. Chen and Y.-T. Huang, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1507 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S.-H. Hsu and Y.-T. Huang, in 8th International Symposium on Contemporary Photonics Technology (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, 2005), paper P-37, p. 153.
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    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Tamir, Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1990).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, Sens. Actuators B 92, 151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 40, 147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1994 (2)

J. Gehler, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, and M. Jäger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Gehler, A. Bräuer, and W. Karthe, Electron. Lett. 30, 218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 10, 209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 8, 103 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, A.

J. Gehler, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, and M. Jäger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Gehler, A. Bräuer, and W. Karthe, Electron. Lett. 30, 218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brugman, A. M.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 40, 147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Calle, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, Sens. Actuators B 92, 151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Chen and Y.-T. Huang, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Domínguez, C.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, Sens. Actuators B 92, 151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 40, 147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fabricius, N.

Gehler, J.

J. Gehler, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, and M. Jäger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Gehler, A. Bräuer, and W. Karthe, Electron. Lett. 30, 218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 40, 147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 10, 209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R. D.

Heideman, R. G.

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 10, 209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hollenbach, U.

Hsu, S.-H.

S.-H. Hsu and Y.-T. Huang, in 8th International Symposium on Contemporary Photonics Technology (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, 2005), paper P-37, p. 153.

Huang, Y.-T.

Y.-H. Chen and Y.-T. Huang, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1507 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Hsu and Y.-T. Huang, in 8th International Symposium on Contemporary Photonics Technology (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, 2005), paper P-37, p. 153.

Ingenhoff, J.

Jäger, M.

J. Gehler, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, and M. Jäger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Karthe, W.

J. Gehler, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, and M. Jäger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Gehler, A. Bräuer, and W. Karthe, Electron. Lett. 30, 218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 40, 147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 10, 209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 8, 103 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lechuga, L. M.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, Sens. Actuators B 92, 151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 40, 147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Leine, L.

Llobera, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, Sens. Actuators B 92, 151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luff, B. J.

Mann, M.

Pfeiffer, L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Piehler, J.

Prieto, F.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, Sens. Actuators B 92, 151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schiffrin, D. J.

Schipper, E. F.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 40, 147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sepúlveda, B.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, Sens. Actuators B 92, 151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir, Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Trutschel, U.

Wachter, C.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wilson, R.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Gehler, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, and M. Jäger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Gehler, A. Bräuer, and W. Karthe, Electron. Lett. 30, 218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sens. Actuators B (4)

P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 8, 103 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 10, 209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 40, 147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, Sens. Actuators B 92, 151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S.-H. Hsu and Y.-T. Huang, in 8th International Symposium on Contemporary Photonics Technology (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, 2005), paper P-37, p. 153.

T. Tamir, Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of a traditional MZI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The 3-D structure of the proposed dual strip ARROW MZI sensor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional views and corresponding effective-index profiles of (a) the first and third sections and (b) the second section.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Field distributions of two decoupled ARROW modes in the second section.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized output powers of the sensor with L 2 = 2 mm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase change versus superstrate index.

Equations (2)

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w j = λ 4 N j [ 1 N 0 2 N j 2 + ( λ 2 N j w 0 ) 2 ] ( 1 2 ) ( 2 Q j + 1 ) ,
P 1 P 0 = sin 2 ( Δ ϕ 2 ) , P 2 P 0 = cos 2 ( Δ ϕ 2 ) ,

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