Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate ultrafast all-optical modulation using a micrometer-sized silicon photonic integrated device. The device transmission is strongly modulated by photoexcited carriers generated by low-energy pump pulses. A p-i-n junction is integrated on the structure to permit control of the generated carrier lifetimes. When the junction is reverse biased, carriers are extracted from the device in a time as short as 50ps, permitting greater than 5Gbits modulation of optical signals on a silicon chip.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2005 (2)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (6)

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. Fan, Opt. Lett. 28, 637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, Phys. Status Solidi A 197, 688 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Stepanov and S. Ruschin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Wada, H. C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 4870, 437 (2002).

2001 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, Sci. Am. 285, 47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

E. Conforti, A. C. Bordonalli, S. Ho, and S.-M. Kang, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 21, 39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Normandin, D. C. Houghton, and M. Simard-Normandin, Can. J. Phys. 67, 412 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, in Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1987).

Almeida, V. R.

Barrios, C. A.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, in Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1987).

Bordonalli, A. C.

E. Conforti, A. C. Bordonalli, S. Ho, and S.-M. Kang, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 21, 39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conforti, E.

E. Conforti, A. C. Bordonalli, S. Ho, and S.-M. Kang, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 21, 39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doll, T.

Fan, S.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Goldhar, J.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gösele, U.

H. W. Tan, H. M. van Driel, S. L. Schweizer, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of American, 2004), paper IFD2.

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P.-T.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S.

E. Conforti, A. C. Bordonalli, S. Ho, and S.-M. Kang, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 21, 39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, D. C.

R. Normandin, D. C. Houghton, and M. Simard-Normandin, Can. J. Phys. 67, 412 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, T. A.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Jones, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, S.-M.

E. Conforti, A. C. Bordonalli, S. Ho, and S.-M. Kang, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 21, 39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

K. Wada, H. C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 4870, 437 (2002).

Krauss, T. F.

T. F. Krauss, Phys. Status Solidi A 197, 688 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lee, Picosecond Optoelectronic Devices (Academic, 1984), Chap. 5.

Leonard, S. W.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, J. Schilling, and R. B. Wehrspohn, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 57 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 159–160.

Li, J.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R. C.

K. Wada, H. C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 4870, 437 (2002).

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

Lorenzo, J. P.

R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, Digest of the OSA Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 1989), pp. 86–89.

Luan, H. C.

K. Wada, H. C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 4870, 437 (2002).

Luo, C.

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Normandin, R.

R. Normandin, D. C. Houghton, and M. Simard-Normandin, Can. J. Phys. 67, 412 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ouzounov, D. G.

Panepucci, R. R.

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruschin, S.

S. Stepanov and S. Ruschin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schilling, J.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, J. Schilling, and R. B. Wehrspohn, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 57 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 159–160.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, S. L.

H. W. Tan, H. M. van Driel, S. L. Schweizer, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of American, 2004), paper IFD2.

Simard-Normandin, M.

R. Normandin, D. C. Houghton, and M. Simard-Normandin, Can. J. Phys. 67, 412 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, in Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1987).

R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, Digest of the OSA Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 1989), pp. 86–89.

Stepanov, S.

S. Stepanov and S. Ruschin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. W.

H. W. Tan, H. M. van Driel, S. L. Schweizer, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of American, 2004), paper IFD2.

van Driel, H. M.

H. W. Tan, H. M. van Driel, S. L. Schweizer, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of American, 2004), paper IFD2.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, J. Schilling, and R. B. Wehrspohn, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 57 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 159–160.

Vuckovic, J.

Wada, K.

K. Wada, H. C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 4870, 437 (2002).

Wehrspohn, R. B.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, J. Schilling, and R. B. Wehrspohn, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 57 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 159–160.

H. W. Tan, H. M. van Driel, S. L. Schweizer, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of American, 2004), paper IFD2.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, Sci. Am. 285, 47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Stepanov and S. Ruschin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

R. Normandin, D. C. Houghton, and M. Simard-Normandin, Can. J. Phys. 67, 412 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

E. Conforti, A. C. Bordonalli, S. Ho, and S.-M. Kang, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 21, 39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

T. F. Krauss, Phys. Status Solidi A 197, 688 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

K. Wada, H. C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 4870, 437 (2002).

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, in Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1987).

Sci. Am. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, Sci. Am. 285, 47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, Digest of the OSA Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 1989), pp. 86–89.

S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, J. Schilling, and R. B. Wehrspohn, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 57 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 159–160.

H. W. Tan, H. M. van Driel, S. L. Schweizer, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of American, 2004), paper IFD2.

C. H. Lee, Picosecond Optoelectronic Devices (Academic, 1984), Chap. 5.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Carrier extraction time as a function of reverse-bias voltage. The inset shows the temporal probe signal for reverse bias V = 4 V and the exponential fit used to obtain the extraction time (1/e point).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental (solid curve) and theoretical (dashed curve) temporal response of the probe signal with reverse bias V = 10 V . The inset shows the energy dissipated for different biases for a MD of 84%.

Equations (2)

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d Δ N d t = 2 3 Δ N τ extract 1 3 Δ N τ open + n τ probe ,
d n d t = n τ probe + N ph 2 ( τ pump 2 ) π V ring exp [ t 2 ( τ pump 2 ) 2 ] ,

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