Abstract

We apply heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) to observe with subwavelength resolution the amplitude and phase of optical fields propagating in several microfabricated waveguide devices operating around the 1.55μm wavelength. Good agreement between the SNOM measurements and predicted optical mode propagation characteristics in standard ridge waveguides demonstrates the validity of the method. In situ observation of the subwavelength-scale distribution and propagation of optical fields in straight and 90° bend photonic crystal waveguides facilitates a more detailed understanding of the optical performance characteristics of these devices and illustrates the usefulness of the technique for investigating nanostructured photonic devices.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. G. Johnson, A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Comput. Sci. Eng. 3, 38 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H.-Y. Ryu, Opt. Express 12, 1551 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, and F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Heinzelmann and D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Kramper, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, U. Gosele, R. B. Wehrspohn, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Lett. 29, 174 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. L.M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Lett. 26, 208 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. I. Bozhevolnyi and B. Vohnsen, Opt. Commun. 212, 217 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Flück, M. Hammer, A. M. Otter, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1384 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. C. Gates, C. W.J. Hillman, J. C. Baggett, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, and W. S. Brocklesby, Opt. Express 12, 847 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Nesci and Y. Fainman, in Proc. SPIE 5181, 62 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Märki, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. Märki, M. Salt, R. Stanley, U. Staufer, and H. P. Herzig, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6966 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004

2003

E. Flück, M. Hammer, A. M. Otter, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci and Y. Fainman, in Proc. SPIE 5181, 62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and B. Vohnsen, Opt. Commun. 212, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. G. Johnson, A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Comput. Sci. Eng. 3, 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Lett. 26, 208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. L.M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

H. Heinzelmann and D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1986

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, and F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baggett, J. C.

Balistreri, M. L.M.

M. L.M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birner, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and B. Vohnsen, Opt. Commun. 212, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brocklesby, W. S.

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dändliker, R.

Dürig, U.

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, and F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

A. Nesci and Y. Fainman, in Proc. SPIE 5181, 62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. G. Johnson, A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Comput. Sci. Eng. 3, 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flück, E.

Furusawa, K.

Gates, J. C.

Gogna, P.

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gosele, U.

Hammer, M.

Heinzelmann, H.

H. Heinzelmann and D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

I. Märki, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Märki, M. Salt, R. Stanley, U. Staufer, and H. P. Herzig, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Lett. 26, 208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, C. W.J.

Imada, M.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson, A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Comput. Sci. Eng. 3, 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson, A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Comput. Sci. Eng. 3, 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

Korterik, J. P.

E. Flück, M. Hammer, A. M. Otter, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L.M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramper, P.

Kuipers, L.

E. Flück, M. Hammer, A. M. Otter, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L.M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuramochi, E.

Loncar, M.

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Märki, I.

I. Märki, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Märki, M. Salt, R. Stanley, U. Staufer, and H. P. Herzig, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

S. G. Johnson, A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Comput. Sci. Eng. 3, 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, S.

Mlynek, J.

Mochizuki, M.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Muller, F.

Nesci, A.

Noda, S.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

Ogawa, S.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okano, M.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Otter, A. M.

Pohl, D. W.

H. Heinzelmann and D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, and F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rohner, F.

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, and F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.-Y.

Salt, M.

I. Märki, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Märki, M. Salt, R. Stanley, U. Staufer, and H. P. Herzig, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

Soukoulis, C. M.

Stanley, R.

I. Märki, M. Salt, R. Stanley, U. Staufer, and H. P. Herzig, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Staufer, U.

I. Märki, M. Salt, R. Stanley, U. Staufer, and H. P. Herzig, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

E. Flück, M. Hammer, A. M. Otter, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L.M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vohnsen, B.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and B. Vohnsen, Opt. Commun. 212, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

Yoshie, T.

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

H. Heinzelmann and D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Sci. Eng.

S. G. Johnson, A. Mekis, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Comput. Sci. Eng. 3, 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

I. Märki, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Märki, M. Salt, R. Stanley, U. Staufer, and H. P. Herzig, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, and F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Commun.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and B. Vohnsen, Opt. Commun. 212, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. L.M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

A. Nesci and Y. Fainman, in Proc. SPIE 5181, 62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SNOM images of a 25 μ m long segment of the wide ( 10 μ m width) section of the tapered ridge waveguide showing (a) topography, (b) amplitude, and (c) phase measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SNOM images of a 25 μ m long segment of the tapered and air bridge ( 0.5 μ m width) sections of the ridge waveguide device showing (a) topography, (b) amplitude, (c) and phase measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Straight PC waveguide: (a) top-view scanning electron microscope image of the device (the square outline indicates the approximate SNOM measurement area); (b) SNOM amplitude measurement of the propagating mode in the waveguide over an area of 7 μ m × 14 μ m ; (c) SNOM phase measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of the PC waveguide 90° bend structure: (a) SEM, (b) SNOM amplitude, (c) SNOM phase.

Metrics