Abstract

We report, for what we believe to be the first time, on remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Measurements have been performed by using a tripled Nd:YAG laser working at 355nm with 170mJ pulse energy, with an expanded beam that is focused onto a target at 60m distance. The LIBS signal is detected by using an on-axis Newtonian telescope and an optical multichannel analyzer. The imaging is performed by scanning the laser beam on the target. The same setup is also used in demonstrations of remote laser ablation for cleaning of contaminated objects with applications toward cultural heritage.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, in Laser Spectroscopy and its Applications, L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, and J. A. Paisner, eds. (Dekker, 1989), p. 351.
  3. Special issue on LIBS, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 565 (2002).
  4. Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).
  5. V. E. Zuev, Y. D. Kopytin, V. A. Korolkov, M. E. Levitskii, M. F. Nebolsin, B. G. Sidorov, and N. P. Soldatkin, in Proceedings of the 13th International Laser Radar Conference (NASA Langley Research Center, 1986).
  6. S. Palanco, J. M. Baena, and J. J. Laserna, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 57, 591 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Grönlund, M. Bengtsson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, T. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, J. Hällström, and K. Barup, in Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, C. Saiz-Jimenez, ed. (A. A. Balkema, 2004).
  9. R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, D. A. Cremers, and S. Chevrel, Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1646 (2003).
  10. C. Fotakis, S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, and V. Tornari, in Proc. SPIE 4402, 8 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Opt. 42, 3583 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. S. Svanberg, Phys. Scr. T72, 69 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Weibring, Th. Johansson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, B. Sundnér, V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, and L. Pantani, Appl. Opt. 40, 6111 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, D. A. Cremers, and S. Chevrel, Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1646 (2003).

P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Opt. 42, 3583 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Special issue on LIBS, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 565 (2002).

S. Palanco, J. M. Baena, and J. J. Laserna, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 57, 591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

1997 (1)

S. Svanberg, Phys. Scr. T72, 69 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).

Akhtyrchenko, Iu. V.

Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).

Baena, J. M.

S. Palanco, J. M. Baena, and J. J. Laserna, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 57, 591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barup, K.

R. Grönlund, M. Bengtsson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, T. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, J. Hällström, and K. Barup, in Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, C. Saiz-Jimenez, ed. (A. A. Balkema, 2004).

Beliaev, E. B.

Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).

Bengtsson, M.

R. Grönlund, M. Bengtsson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, T. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, J. Hällström, and K. Barup, in Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, C. Saiz-Jimenez, ed. (A. A. Balkema, 2004).

Cecchi, G.

D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, Th. Johansson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, B. Sundnér, V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, and L. Pantani, Appl. Opt. 40, 6111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chevrel, S.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, D. A. Cremers, and S. Chevrel, Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1646 (2003).

Chiari, R.

D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cremers, D. A.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, D. A. Cremers, and S. Chevrel, Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1646 (2003).

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, in Laser Spectroscopy and its Applications, L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, and J. A. Paisner, eds. (Dekker, 1989), p. 351.

Edner, H.

P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Opt. 42, 3583 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, Th. Johansson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, B. Sundnér, V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, and L. Pantani, Appl. Opt. 40, 6111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Grönlund, M. Bengtsson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, T. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, J. Hällström, and K. Barup, in Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, C. Saiz-Jimenez, ed. (A. A. Balkema, 2004).

Fotakis, C.

C. Fotakis, S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, and V. Tornari, in Proc. SPIE 4402, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garin, O. V.

Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).

Georgiou, S.

C. Fotakis, S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, and V. Tornari, in Proc. SPIE 4402, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Godlevskii, A. P.

Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).

Grönlund, R.

R. Grönlund, M. Bengtsson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, T. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, J. Hällström, and K. Barup, in Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, C. Saiz-Jimenez, ed. (A. A. Balkema, 2004).

Hällström, J.

R. Grönlund, M. Bengtsson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, T. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, J. Hällström, and K. Barup, in Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, C. Saiz-Jimenez, ed. (A. A. Balkema, 2004).

Hoffman, N. M.

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, T.

R. Grönlund, M. Bengtsson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, T. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, J. Hällström, and K. Barup, in Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, C. Saiz-Jimenez, ed. (A. A. Balkema, 2004).

Johansson, Th.

D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, Th. Johansson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, B. Sundnér, V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, and L. Pantani, Appl. Opt. 40, 6111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kopytin, Iu. D.

Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).

Kopytin, Y. D.

V. E. Zuev, Y. D. Kopytin, V. A. Korolkov, M. E. Levitskii, M. F. Nebolsin, B. G. Sidorov, and N. P. Soldatkin, in Proceedings of the 13th International Laser Radar Conference (NASA Langley Research Center, 1986).

Korolkov, V. A.

V. E. Zuev, Y. D. Kopytin, V. A. Korolkov, M. E. Levitskii, M. F. Nebolsin, B. G. Sidorov, and N. P. Soldatkin, in Proceedings of the 13th International Laser Radar Conference (NASA Langley Research Center, 1986).

Kuriapin, A. I.

Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).

Laserna, J. J.

S. Palanco, J. M. Baena, and J. J. Laserna, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 57, 591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Levitskii, M. E.

V. E. Zuev, Y. D. Kopytin, V. A. Korolkov, M. E. Levitskii, M. F. Nebolsin, B. G. Sidorov, and N. P. Soldatkin, in Proceedings of the 13th International Laser Radar Conference (NASA Langley Research Center, 1986).

Lognoli, D.

D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loree, T. R.

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Maurice, S.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, D. A. Cremers, and S. Chevrel, Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1646 (2003).

Méjean, G.

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mochi, I.

D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nebolsin, M. F.

V. E. Zuev, Y. D. Kopytin, V. A. Korolkov, M. E. Levitskii, M. F. Nebolsin, B. G. Sidorov, and N. P. Soldatkin, in Proceedings of the 13th International Laser Radar Conference (NASA Langley Research Center, 1986).

Palanco, S.

S. Palanco, J. M. Baena, and J. J. Laserna, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 57, 591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pantani, L.

D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, Th. Johansson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, B. Sundnér, V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, and L. Pantani, Appl. Opt. 40, 6111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pogodaev, V. A.

Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).

Pokasov, V. V.

Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).

Radziemski, L. J.

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, in Laser Spectroscopy and its Applications, L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, and J. A. Paisner, eds. (Dekker, 1989), p. 351.

Raimondi, V.

D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, Th. Johansson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, B. Sundnér, V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, and L. Pantani, Appl. Opt. 40, 6111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rohwetter, Ph.

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sidorov, B. G.

V. E. Zuev, Y. D. Kopytin, V. A. Korolkov, M. E. Levitskii, M. F. Nebolsin, B. G. Sidorov, and N. P. Soldatkin, in Proceedings of the 13th International Laser Radar Conference (NASA Langley Research Center, 1986).

Sjöholm, M.

R. Grönlund, M. Bengtsson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, T. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, J. Hällström, and K. Barup, in Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, C. Saiz-Jimenez, ed. (A. A. Balkema, 2004).

Soldatkin, N. P.

V. E. Zuev, Y. D. Kopytin, V. A. Korolkov, M. E. Levitskii, M. F. Nebolsin, B. G. Sidorov, and N. P. Soldatkin, in Proceedings of the 13th International Laser Radar Conference (NASA Langley Research Center, 1986).

Somesfalean, G.

R. Grönlund, M. Bengtsson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, T. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, J. Hällström, and K. Barup, in Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, C. Saiz-Jimenez, ed. (A. A. Balkema, 2004).

Stelmaszczyk, K.

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sundnér, B.

Svanberg, S.

P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Opt. 42, 3583 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, Th. Johansson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, B. Sundnér, V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, and L. Pantani, Appl. Opt. 40, 6111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, Phys. Scr. T72, 69 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Grönlund, M. Bengtsson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, T. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, J. Hällström, and K. Barup, in Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, C. Saiz-Jimenez, ed. (A. A. Balkema, 2004).

Tornari, V.

C. Fotakis, S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, and V. Tornari, in Proc. SPIE 4402, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vysotskii, Iu. P.

Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).

Weibring, P.

P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Opt. 42, 3583 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, Th. Johansson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, B. Sundnér, V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, and L. Pantani, Appl. Opt. 40, 6111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Grönlund, M. Bengtsson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, T. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, J. Hällström, and K. Barup, in Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, C. Saiz-Jimenez, ed. (A. A. Balkema, 2004).

Wiens, R. C.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, D. A. Cremers, and S. Chevrel, Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1646 (2003).

Wolf, J. P.

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zafiropulos, V.

C. Fotakis, S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, and V. Tornari, in Proc. SPIE 4402, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zuev, V. E.

Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).

V. E. Zuev, Y. D. Kopytin, V. A. Korolkov, M. E. Levitskii, M. F. Nebolsin, B. G. Sidorov, and N. P. Soldatkin, in Proceedings of the 13th International Laser Radar Conference (NASA Langley Research Center, 1986).

Anal. Chem. (1)

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Lognoli, G. Cecchi, I. Mochi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, R. Chiari, Th. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fizika (Alma Ata) (1)

Iu. V. Akhtyrchenko, E. B. Beliaev, Iu. P. Vysotskii, O. V. Garin, A. P. Godlevskii, V. E. Zuev, Iu. D. Kopytin, A. I. Kuriapin, V. A. Pogodaev, and V. V. Pokasov, Fizika (Alma Ata) 26, 5 (1983).

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lunar Planet. Sci. (1)

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, D. A. Cremers, and S. Chevrel, Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1646 (2003).

Phys. Scr. (1)

S. Svanberg, Phys. Scr. T72, 69 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Fotakis, S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, and V. Tornari, in Proc. SPIE 4402, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part B (2)

Special issue on LIBS, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 565 (2002).

S. Palanco, J. M. Baena, and J. J. Laserna, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 57, 591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. Grönlund, M. Bengtsson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, T. Johansson, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, J. Hällström, and K. Barup, in Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage, C. Saiz-Jimenez, ed. (A. A. Balkema, 2004).

V. E. Zuev, Y. D. Kopytin, V. A. Korolkov, M. E. Levitskii, M. F. Nebolsin, B. G. Sidorov, and N. P. Soldatkin, in Proceedings of the 13th International Laser Radar Conference (NASA Langley Research Center, 1986).

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, in Laser Spectroscopy and its Applications, L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, and J. A. Paisner, eds. (Dekker, 1989), p. 351.

D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 74th ed. (CRC Press, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement setup with the important parts of the interior of the lidar system labeled. Detailed diagrams of the optical and electronic arrangements of the lidar system can be found in Ref. [11].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Remote LIBS spectra from metal plates of copper and aluminum. The vertical lines correspond to tabular values of prominent emission peaks.[12] Note that magnesium and sodium contamination can be clearly seen in the aluminum case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LIBS imaging of metal plates, with the target on the left and a false-color coded identification image on the right with copper (red), aluminum (green) and iron (blue). The classification has good correspondence to the spots where the laser has hit the target. The big plates on the left are (from top to bottom) copper, stainless steel, brass, aluminum, and iron. The stainless steel is classified as iron and the brass as copper, as they contain large amounts of these substances. The vertical profiles holding the plates are made of aluminum and are classified accordingly. Note that the pixels are much larger than the spot size and that the scanning resolution is quite low. The beam scanning has been slightly tilted, and the middle spot in the upper rows does not hit the aluminum profile but instead hits the metal plates. White parts correspond to nonmetallic surfaces.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Remote laser ablative cleaning of, a, mortar; b, alabaster; c, a replica of an Italian statue with the arrow indicating the 100 cm 2 cleaned area; d, a statue made of Carrara marble after and before cleaning.

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