Abstract

We present a novel approach to generating radially and azimuthally polarized vector beams that utilize an interferometer constructed from two identical diffractive optical elements. The measured polarization properties of four vector beam states and their phase relationships are in good agreement with theoretical expectations. This interferometer is passively phase stable and robust, making it suitable for linear and nonlinear optical (superresolution) microscopy.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q.-H. Xu, Y.-Z. Ma, and G. R. Fleming, Chem. Phys. Lett. 338, 254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Khalil, N. Demirdovenm, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, in Proc. SPIE 3919, 75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

Y. Liu, D. Cline, and P. He, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 424, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1992

S. Hell and E. H. K. Stelzer, Opt. Commun. 93, 277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

R. Yamaguchi, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 28, 1730 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

1950

Bokor, N.

Bomzon, Z.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, in Proc. SPIE 3919, 75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cline, D.

Y. Liu, D. Cline, and P. He, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 424, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cox, I. J.

Dadusc, G.

Davidson, N.

Demirdovenm, N.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdovenm, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fecko, C. J.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdovenm, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, G. R.

Q.-H. Xu, Y.-Z. Ma, and G. R. Fleming, Chem. Phys. Lett. 338, 254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ford, D. H.

Golonzka, O.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdovenm, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goodno, G. D.

Hasman, E.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

He, P.

Y. Liu, D. Cline, and P. He, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 424, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S.

S. Hell and E. H. K. Stelzer, Opt. Commun. 93, 277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Juškaitis, R.

Khalil, M.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdovenm, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Park, J. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, in Ultrafast Phenomena XIV, T. Kobayashi, T. Okada, T. Kobayashi, K. A. Nelson, and S. De Silvestri, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2005), pp. 557–559.
[CrossRef]

Kimura, W. D.

Kleiner, V.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kraushaar, R.

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, D. Cline, and P. He, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 424, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.-Z.

Q.-H. Xu, Y.-Z. Ma, and G. R. Fleming, Chem. Phys. Lett. 338, 254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Massoumian, F.

Maznev, A. A.

Miller, R. J. D.

Neil, M. A. A.

Nelson, K. A.

Nose, T.

R. Yamaguchi, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 28, 1730 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S.

S. Park, J. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, in Ultrafast Phenomena XIV, T. Kobayashi, T. Okada, T. Kobayashi, K. A. Nelson, and S. De Silvestri, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2005), pp. 557–559.
[CrossRef]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

R. Yamaguchi, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 28, 1730 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, N. F.

S. Park, J. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, in Ultrafast Phenomena XIV, T. Kobayashi, T. Okada, T. Kobayashi, K. A. Nelson, and S. De Silvestri, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2005), pp. 557–559.
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Sick, B.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

S. Hell and E. H. K. Stelzer, Opt. Commun. 93, 277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Tidwell, S. C.

Tokmakoff, A.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdovenm, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

Xu, Q.-H.

Q.-H. Xu, Y.-Z. Ma, and G. R. Fleming, Chem. Phys. Lett. 338, 254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, R.

R. Yamaguchi, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 28, 1730 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Youngworth, K. S.

K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, in Proc. SPIE 3919, 75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

Q.-H. Xu, Y.-Z. Ma, and G. R. Fleming, Chem. Phys. Lett. 338, 254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. A

M. Khalil, N. Demirdovenm, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

R. Yamaguchi, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 28, 1730 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

Y. Liu, D. Cline, and P. He, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 424, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Hell and E. H. K. Stelzer, Opt. Commun. 93, 277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, in Proc. SPIE 3919, 75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, J. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, in Ultrafast Phenomena XIV, T. Kobayashi, T. Okada, T. Kobayashi, K. A. Nelson, and S. De Silvestri, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2005), pp. 557–559.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DOE interferometer. Spatial phase generation elements include half-wave plates (HWPs) and glass coverslips used as tunable phase plates (PPs). The lenses have 10 cm focal length and are placed in an imaging configuration. The arrows and the circle represent the direction of linear polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the procedure for obtaining spatially dependent phase shifts of the semicircular halves of the beams. The relative rotation of the coverslips is exaggerated for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity images for a radially polarized beam obtained from a DOE interferometer. (a) Destructive or (b) constructive interference is observed at the geometric center of the beam, depending on the settings of tunable phase plates in the interferometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity vector beam distributions generated from a DOE interferometer after the beam has passed through a polarization analyzer: (a) azimuthal, (b) diagonal–azimuthal, (c) radial, (d) quadrupolar–radial.

Equations (1)

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E ̂ ( r , θ ) = E 0 ( r ) [ cos ( θ ) x ̂ + sin ( θ ) y ̂ ] ,

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