Abstract

A method for obtaining fluorescence images with a high number of resolvable points by using spectral and frequency encoding is presented. Broadband excitation light is encoded with a wavelength-dependent frequency modulation and dispersed onto the sample with a grating to simultaneously illuminate an entire image line. The Fourier transform of the frequency-encoded fluorescence emission provides one line of the image. Mechanical scanning along a direction orthogonal to the wavelength-encoded axis allows creation of the two-dimensional fluorescent image. This method is applicable for developing submillimeter diameter endoscopes. The principles of the technique are validated by imaging indocyanine green fluorescence in microfluidic channels.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Funovics, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Radiology 231, 659 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Tung, Biopolymers 76, 391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Shin, K. Matsuda, O. Ishii, H. Terai, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, J. Borenstein, M. Detmar, and J. P. Vacanti, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McConnell, Opt. Express 12, 2844 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Lett. 29, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, H. S. Su, K. Khashayarsha, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Molecular Imaging 2, 350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 27, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1996

Alencar, H.

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, H. S. Su, K. Khashayarsha, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Molecular Imaging 2, 350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bando, T.

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Borenstein, J.

M. Shin, K. Matsuda, O. Ishii, H. Terai, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, J. Borenstein, M. Detmar, and J. P. Vacanti, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Detmar, M.

M. Shin, K. Matsuda, O. Ishii, H. Terai, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, J. Borenstein, M. Detmar, and J. P. Vacanti, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Funovics, M. A.

M. A. Funovics, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Radiology 231, 659 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, H. S. Su, K. Khashayarsha, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Molecular Imaging 2, 350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Genet, M.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honda, H.

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ii, K.

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inayama, K.

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irimura, T.

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, O.

M. Shin, K. Matsuda, O. Ishii, H. Terai, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, J. Borenstein, M. Detmar, and J. P. Vacanti, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, S.

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaazempur-Mofrad, M.

M. Shin, K. Matsuda, O. Ishii, H. Terai, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, J. Borenstein, M. Detmar, and J. P. Vacanti, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauppinen, J.

J. Kauppinen and J. Partanen, Fourier Transforms in Spectroscopy (Wiley-VCH, 2001), p. 271.

Khashayarsha, K.

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, H. S. Su, K. Khashayarsha, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Molecular Imaging 2, 350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kusaka, Y.

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laemmel, E.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gargasson, J. F.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Goualher, G.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K.

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmood, U.

M. A. Funovics, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Radiology 231, 659 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, H. S. Su, K. Khashayarsha, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Molecular Imaging 2, 350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, K.

M. Shin, K. Matsuda, O. Ishii, H. Terai, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, J. Borenstein, M. Detmar, and J. P. Vacanti, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McConnell, G.

Muguruma, N.

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musashi, Y.

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Partanen, J.

J. Kauppinen and J. Partanen, Fourier Transforms in Spectroscopy (Wiley-VCH, 2001), p. 271.

Perchant, A.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibamura, S.

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, I.

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, M.

M. Shin, K. Matsuda, O. Ishii, H. Terai, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, J. Borenstein, M. Detmar, and J. P. Vacanti, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Southern, J. F.

Su, H. S.

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, H. S. Su, K. Khashayarsha, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Molecular Imaging 2, 350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tadatsu, M.

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takesako, K.

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takesakos, K.

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Terai, H.

M. Shin, K. Matsuda, O. Ishii, H. Terai, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, J. Borenstein, M. Detmar, and J. P. Vacanti, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, C. H.

C. H. Tung, Biopolymers 76, 391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vacanti, J. P.

M. Shin, K. Matsuda, O. Ishii, H. Terai, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, J. Borenstein, M. Detmar, and J. P. Vacanti, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vicaut, E.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Weissleder, R.

M. A. Funovics, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Radiology 231, 659 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, H. S. Su, K. Khashayarsha, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Molecular Imaging 2, 350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, N. J.

Yano, M.

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yelin, D.

Yun, S. H.

Biomed. Microdevices

M. Shin, K. Matsuda, O. Ishii, H. Terai, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, J. Borenstein, M. Detmar, and J. P. Vacanti, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biopolymers

C. H. Tung, Biopolymers 76, 391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Endoscopy

S. Ito, N. Muguruma, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Inayama, Y. Musashi, M. Yano, T. Bando, H. Honda, I. Shimizu, K. Li, K. Takesako, H. Takeuchi, and S. Shibamura, Endoscopy 33, 849 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterol. J.

T. Bando, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, Y. Musashi, K. Inayama, Y. Kusaka, M. Tadatsu, K. Ii, T. Irimura, S. Shibamura, and K. Takesakos, Gastroenterol. J. 37(4), 260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vasc. Res.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molecular Imaging

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, H. S. Su, K. Khashayarsha, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Molecular Imaging 2, 350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Radiology

M. A. Funovics, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, Radiology 231, 659 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Kauppinen and J. Partanen, Fourier Transforms in Spectroscopy (Wiley-VCH, 2001), p. 271.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SFE fluorescence imaging experimental setup: SPF, short-pass filter; SMF, single-mode fiber; M, mirror; BPF, bandpass filter; D i , avalanche photodiode; G, transmission grating; LPF, long-pass filter; CL, cylindrical lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SFE fluorescence imaging concept: I ex , illumination spectrum; f, modulation frequency of the light; v, mirror velocity; I em , fluorescence emission spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of microfluidic channels: a, ICG fluorescence in channels imaged with SFE and b, white-light microscope image of similar channels. Scale bar, 500 μ m .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Theoretical Number of SFE Resolvable Points for Typical Fluorophores a

Equations (2)

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n Δ λ d G λ 0 cos ( θ i ) ,
I ex ( λ ex , i , t ) = 1 2 I ex ( λ ex , i ) [ 1 + cos ( 4 π λ ex , i v t ) ] ,

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