Abstract

We numerically demonstrate the operation of a novel class of wavelength-division demultiplexing circuit based on photonic crystal waveguides that are entirely synthesized by ultralow-refractive-index metallic nanopillars. The operational principle of the newly proposed device is based on the phenomenon of total external reflections in ultralow-refractive-index metallic photonic crystal structures (metamaterials). In addition we provide detailed design guidelines for optimum device performance. The low propagation losses and compact size, as well as temperature-insensitive operation over a wide temperature range, are only a few of the advantages of the proposed technology, making this new type of demultiplexer an excellent candidate for applications in the visible spectrum.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Koshiba, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1970 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, Science 300, 1537 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. T. Schwartz and R. Piestun, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2448 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Poborchii, T. Taya, T. Kanayama, and A. Moroz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 508 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Takayama and M. Cada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1311 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Moroz, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115109 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Felbacq, G. Tayeb, and D. Maystre, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2526 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, N. A. Nicorovici, P. A. Robinson, and C. M. Stekre, Phys. Rev. E 60, 7614 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. J. Florous and M. Koshiba, presented at the 3rd International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics and Its Applications (ICCEA-2004), Beijing (IEEE), Nov. 1–4, 2004, presentation A1 004.
  15. N. J. Florous and M. Koshiba, presented at Integrated Photonics Research and Applications (IPRA-2005), San Diego, Calif. (Optical Society of America), Apr. 11–15, 2005, paper ITuB3.
  16. P. I. Borel, A. Harpoth, L. H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J. S. Jensen, and O. Sigmund, Opt. Express 12, 1996 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. V. Kuzmiak, A. A. Maradudin, and F. Pincemin, Phys. Rev. B 50, 16835 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1988).
  19. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183901 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (4)

B. T. Schwartz and R. Piestun, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, Science 300, 1537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Poborchii, T. Taya, T. Kanayama, and A. Moroz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 508 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Moroz, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Koshiba, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, N. A. Nicorovici, P. A. Robinson, and C. M. Stekre, Phys. Rev. E 60, 7614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

V. Kuzmiak, A. A. Maradudin, and F. Pincemin, Phys. Rev. B 50, 16835 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Felbacq, G. Tayeb, and D. Maystre, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2526 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, Science 300, 1537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asatryan, A. A.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, N. A. Nicorovici, P. A. Robinson, and C. M. Stekre, Phys. Rev. E 60, 7614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

Botten, L. C.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, N. A. Nicorovici, P. A. Robinson, and C. M. Stekre, Phys. Rev. E 60, 7614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brommer, K. D.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cada, M.

O. Takayama and M. Cada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christ, A.

A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Felbacq, D.

Florous, N. J.

N. J. Florous and M. Koshiba, presented at the 3rd International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics and Its Applications (ICCEA-2004), Beijing (IEEE), Nov. 1–4, 2004, presentation A1 004.

N. J. Florous and M. Koshiba, presented at Integrated Photonics Research and Applications (IPRA-2005), San Diego, Calif. (Optical Society of America), Apr. 11–15, 2005, paper ITuB3.

Frandsen, L. H.

Giessen, H.

A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gippius, N. A.

A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harpoth, A.

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, J. S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S.

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kanayama, T.

V. Poborchii, T. Taya, T. Kanayama, and A. Moroz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 508 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

M. Koshiba, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Florous and M. Koshiba, presented at Integrated Photonics Research and Applications (IPRA-2005), San Diego, Calif. (Optical Society of America), Apr. 11–15, 2005, paper ITuB3.

N. J. Florous and M. Koshiba, presented at the 3rd International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics and Its Applications (ICCEA-2004), Beijing (IEEE), Nov. 1–4, 2004, presentation A1 004.

Kristensen, M.

Kuhl, J.

A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmiak, V.

V. Kuzmiak, A. A. Maradudin, and F. Pincemin, Phys. Rev. B 50, 16835 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

V. Kuzmiak, A. A. Maradudin, and F. Pincemin, Phys. Rev. B 50, 16835 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D.

McPhedran, R. C.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, N. A. Nicorovici, P. A. Robinson, and C. M. Stekre, Phys. Rev. E 60, 7614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moroz, A.

V. Poborchii, T. Taya, T. Kanayama, and A. Moroz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 508 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Moroz, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nicorovici, N. A.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, N. A. Nicorovici, P. A. Robinson, and C. M. Stekre, Phys. Rev. E 60, 7614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, Science 300, 1537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1988).

Piestun, R.

Pincemin, F.

V. Kuzmiak, A. A. Maradudin, and F. Pincemin, Phys. Rev. B 50, 16835 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poborchii, V.

V. Poborchii, T. Taya, T. Kanayama, and A. Moroz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 508 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rappe, A. M.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, P. A.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, N. A. Nicorovici, P. A. Robinson, and C. M. Stekre, Phys. Rev. E 60, 7614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B. T.

Shi, P.

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sigmund, O.

Song, B. S.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, Science 300, 1537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stekre, C. M.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, N. A. Nicorovici, P. A. Robinson, and C. M. Stekre, Phys. Rev. E 60, 7614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, O.

O. Takayama and M. Cada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taya, T.

V. Poborchii, T. Taya, T. Kanayama, and A. Moroz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 508 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tayeb, G.

Tikhodeev, S. G.

A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

V. Poborchii, T. Taya, T. Kanayama, and A. Moroz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 508 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Takayama and M. Cada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

V. Kuzmiak, A. A. Maradudin, and F. Pincemin, Phys. Rev. B 50, 16835 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Moroz, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, N. A. Nicorovici, P. A. Robinson, and C. M. Stekre, Phys. Rev. E 60, 7614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, Science 300, 1537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1988).

N. J. Florous and M. Koshiba, presented at the 3rd International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics and Its Applications (ICCEA-2004), Beijing (IEEE), Nov. 1–4, 2004, presentation A1 004.

N. J. Florous and M. Koshiba, presented at Integrated Photonics Research and Applications (IPRA-2005), San Diego, Calif. (Optical Society of America), Apr. 11–15, 2005, paper ITuB3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Topology of a three-channel demultiplexer that uses planar PC waveguides composed of copper nanowires embedded in air.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of the variation of channel width w 1 on the transmission spectra of channel 2. We can clearly see that the optimum transmission spectra occurs for w 1 = 320 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized transmission spectra (TM polarization) of the proposed PCW demultiplexer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contour plots of the electromagnetic power flow in the metallic PC demultiplexer at (a) λ 1 = 665 nm (red light) and (b) λ 2 = 580 nm (yellow light).

Equations (1)

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ϵ m = ϵ [ 1 ω p 2 ω ( ω + j ν c ) ] ,

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