Abstract

We demonstrate a highly integrated micrometer-scale low-power wavelength converter based on the free-carrier dispersion effect in silicon. The conversion is achieved through all-optical modulation of a silicon ring resonator by use of modulated cw control light. The ring resonator has a radius of 5μm and a Q of 10,000. Both inverted and noninverted modulation are achieved at a bit rate of 0.9Gbitss with a control power of 4.5 mW. The scaling of the required control power for operation with respect to the characteristics of the ring resonator is established.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Mao, P. A. Andrekson, and J. Toulouse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 420 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Nesset, T. Kelly, and D. Marcenac, IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 56 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, in CLEO/IQEC and PhAST Technical Digest on CDROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CMP2.
  8. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

W. Mao, P. A. Andrekson, and J. Toulouse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, Opt. Express 13, 1515 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 12, 2774 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, and W. Henschel, Opt. Lett. 29, 2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. L. Lipson, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Weiss, M. Molinari, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (3)

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, P. S. Cho, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis, and P.-T. Ho, Opt. Lett. 25, 554 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M.H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. Y. Chai, IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Nesset, T. Kelly, and D. Marcenac, IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 56 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergesen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

Almeida, V. R.

Andrekson, P. A.

W. Mao, P. A. Andrekson, and J. Toulouse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. L. Lipson, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, and W. Henschel, Opt. Lett. 29, 2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Borselli, M.

Bose, S. K.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. Y. Chai, IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chai, T. Y.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. Y. Chai, IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. H.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. Y. Chai, IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cho, P. S.

Chu, S. T.

Claps, R.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 12, 2774 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, J. C.S. Woo, and B. Jalali, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMU7.

V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, in CLEO/IQEC and PhAST Technical Digest on CDROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CMP2.

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, L. R.

Danielsen, S. L.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergesen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 12, 2774 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, J. C.S. Woo, and B. Jalali, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMU7.

V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, in CLEO/IQEC and PhAST Technical Digest on CDROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CMP2.

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Durhuus, T.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergesen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Elmirghani, J. M.H.

J. M.H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fauchet, P. M.

S. M. Weiss, M. Molinari, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henschel, W.

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, and W. Henschel, Opt. Lett. 29, 2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.-T.

Hryniewicz, J. V.

Jalali, B.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 12, 2774 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, J. C.S. Woo, and B. Jalali, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMU7.

V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, in CLEO/IQEC and PhAST Technical Digest on CDROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CMP2.

Jhaveri, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, J. C.S. Woo, and B. Jalali, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMU7.

Joergesen, C.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergesen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. J.

Joneckis, L. G.

Jones, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, T.

D. Nesset, T. Kelly, and D. Marcenac, IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 56 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. T.

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, B. S Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Lipson, M. L.

Little, B. E.

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. Y. Chai, IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mao, W.

W. Mao, P. A. Andrekson, and J. Toulouse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marcenac, D.

D. Nesset, T. Kelly, and D. Marcenac, IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 56 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergesen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Molinari, M.

S. M. Weiss, M. Molinari, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mouftah, H. T.

J. M.H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nesset, D.

D. Nesset, T. Kelly, and D. Marcenac, IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 56 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niehusmann, J.

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, and W. Henschel, Opt. Lett. 29, 2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Panepucci, R.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preble, S. F.

S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, B. S Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rabiei, P.

Raghunathan, V.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 12, 2774 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, J. C.S. Woo, and B. Jalali, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMU7.

V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, in CLEO/IQEC and PhAST Technical Digest on CDROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CMP2.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. S

S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, B. S Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Shen, G.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. Y. Chai, IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

Stubkjaer, K. E.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergesen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toulouse, J.

W. Mao, P. A. Andrekson, and J. Toulouse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vörckel, A.

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, and W. Henschel, Opt. Lett. 29, 2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wahlbrink, T.

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, and W. Henschel, Opt. Lett. 29, 2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S. M.

S. M. Weiss, M. Molinari, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. A.

Woo, J. C.S.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, J. C.S. Woo, and B. Jalali, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMU7.

Xu, Q.

S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, B. S Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Zhang, C.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Weiss, M. Molinari, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. Y. Chai, IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

D. Nesset, T. Kelly, and D. Marcenac, IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 56 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M.H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Mao, P. A. Andrekson, and J. Toulouse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nature (2)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (3)

S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, B. S Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, J. C.S. Woo, and B. Jalali, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMU7.

V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, in CLEO/IQEC and PhAST Technical Digest on CDROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CMP2.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experiment setup on wavelength conversion using a silicon ring resonator. PG, pattern generator; Mod, LiNO 3 electro-optical modulator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; PC, polarization controller.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of the ring resonator on a dB scale. The insets are the spectra on a linear scale at each resonance. The control and signal wavelengths are marked in the insets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Input waveform of the control light. (b) Output waveform of the signal light at the wavelength of λ s 1 , showing noninverted wavelength conversion. (c) Output waveform of the signal light at the wavelength of λ S 2 , showing inverted wavelength conversion.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q = λ 0 Δ λ π n g λ 0 1 α ,
Δ n eff = Γ n f Δ N = Γ n f β I ring τ c 2 h ν = Γ n f β K 2 ( 2 P C ) 2 τ c A 2 2 h ν C ,
P C 2 π 2 n g 2 n eff h ν C V eff 2 2 Γ n f β λ 2 2 Q 2 2 Q 1 τ c ,

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