Abstract

Silica (SiO2) optical waveguides have been fabricated on the surface of silicone [(SiO(CH3)2)n] rubber by photochemical modification of silicone rubber into silica with 157nm F2-laser radiation. The 2mm thick silicone was exposed through a thin (0.2mm) air layer to generate oxygen radicals that chemically assisted in the silica transformation. Silica waveguides were defined in 816μm wide exposure strips by a proximity Cr-on-CaF2 photomask. Optimum laser processing conditions are presented for generating crack-free waveguides with good optical transparency at red (635nm) and infrared (1550nm) wavelengths. A propagation loss of 6dBcm is reported at the 1550nm wavelength.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (2)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Nature 432, 488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okoshi, T. Kimura, H. Takao, N. Inoue, and T. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 3438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. Takao, M. Okoshi, and N. Inoue, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, L1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Okoshi, M. Kuramatsu, and N. Inoue, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. R. Herman, K. P. Chen, P. Corkum, A. Naumov, S. Ng, and J. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 4088, 345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Ashkenasi, D.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cambell, E. E. B.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. P.

P. R. Herman, K. P. Chen, P. Corkum, A. Naumov, S. Ng, and J. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 4088, 345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

P. R. Herman, K. P. Chen, P. Corkum, A. Naumov, S. Ng, and J. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 4088, 345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Henz, S.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

P. R. Herman, K. P. Chen, P. Corkum, A. Naumov, S. Ng, and J. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 4088, 345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, J.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Nature 432, 488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosono, H.

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Nature 432, 488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, N.

M. Okoshi, T. Kimura, H. Takao, N. Inoue, and T. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 3438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Okoshi, M. Kuramatsu, and N. Inoue, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Takao, M. Okoshi, and N. Inoue, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, L1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, T.

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Nature 432, 488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, T.

M. Okoshi, T. Kimura, H. Takao, N. Inoue, and T. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 3438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuramatsu, M.

M. Okoshi, M. Kuramatsu, and N. Inoue, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naumov, A.

P. R. Herman, K. P. Chen, P. Corkum, A. Naumov, S. Ng, and J. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 4088, 345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ng, S.

P. R. Herman, K. P. Chen, P. Corkum, A. Naumov, S. Ng, and J. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 4088, 345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, K.

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Nature 432, 488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohta, H.

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Nature 432, 488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okoshi, M.

M. Okoshi, T. Kimura, H. Takao, N. Inoue, and T. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 3438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Takao, M. Okoshi, and N. Inoue, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, L1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Okoshi, M. Kuramatsu, and N. Inoue, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Takagi, A.

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Nature 432, 488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takao, H.

M. Okoshi, T. Kimura, H. Takao, N. Inoue, and T. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 3438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Takao, M. Okoshi, and N. Inoue, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, L1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Varel, H.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

M. Okoshi, T. Kimura, H. Takao, N. Inoue, and T. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 3438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

P. R. Herman, K. P. Chen, P. Corkum, A. Naumov, S. Ng, and J. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 4088, 345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Hermann, and E. E. B. Cambell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (3)

H. Takao, M. Okoshi, and N. Inoue, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, L1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Okoshi, T. Kimura, H. Takao, N. Inoue, and T. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 3438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Okoshi, M. Kuramatsu, and N. Inoue, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 41, 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Nature 432, 488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. R. Herman, K. P. Chen, P. Corkum, A. Naumov, S. Ng, and J. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 4088, 345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser exposure conditions delineating silica waveguides formed (filled circles) with and (open circles) without microcracks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscope images of 15 μ m wide silica optical waveguides fabricated on silicone rubber: (a) top view, (b) end view.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM image showing the surface swelling of a silica optical waveguide fabricated on silicone rubber. Enlarged panels show the surface roughness of (a) the silica rib and (b) the nonirradiated silicone over a probe area of 3 μ m × 3 μ m . Vertical scales are in micrometers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CCD image of the guided infrared ( 1550 nm ) light emitted from the end of the silica optical waveguide. The air–silicone interface is defined by the horizontal dashed line.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( Si O ( C H 3 ) 2 ) n + h ν ( 157 nm ) ( Si O ( C H 3 ) 2 ) n m + ( Si O ( C H 3 ) 2 ) m ;
O 2 + h ν ( 157 nm ) O ( D 1 ) + O ( P 3 ) ;
( Si O ( C H 3 ) 2 ) n m + ( Si O ( C H 3 ) 2 ) m + h ν ( 157 nm ) ( Si O ) n m + ( Si O ) m + 2 n ( C H 3 ) ,
( Si O ) n m + ( Si O ) m + n O ( D 1 ) n Si O 2 .

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