Abstract

It is demonstrated that ultrahigh-resolution angular measurement can be achieved via surface-plasmon-resonance excitation in which the phase difference between p- and s-polarized reflected waves is monitored as a function of the incidence angle. Resolutions down to 1.9×106deg are obtained by performing the measurements at optimal incident wavelengths. This represents an order of magnitude improvement compared with previously reported values.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).
  2. See, e.g., J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2004

H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

See, e.g., J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, Sens. Actuators B 54, 43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Guo, Z. Zhu, W. Deng, and S. Shen, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 37, 2998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, Biosens. Bioelectron. 13, 1263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

B. Chadwick and M. Gal, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 32, 2716 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. Herminghaus and P. Leiderer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 352 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

S. Herminghaus and P. Leiderer, Appl. Phys. A 51, 350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Beloglazov, A. A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, Sens. Actuators B 54, 43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, Biosens. Bioelectron. 13, 1263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, C. T.

See, e.g., L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chadwick, B.

B. Chadwick and M. Gal, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 32, 2716 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R.

H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-M.

H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, H.-P.

H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chinowsky, T. M.

See, e.g., L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deng, W.

J. Guo, Z. Zhu, W. Deng, and S. Shen, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 37, 2998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gal, M.

B. Chadwick and M. Gal, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 32, 2716 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

J. Guo, Z. Zhu, W. Deng, and S. Shen, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 37, 2998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herminghaus, S.

S. Herminghaus and P. Leiderer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 352 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Herminghaus and P. Leiderer, Appl. Phys. A 51, 350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

See, e.g., J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, S. U.

H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jung, L. S.

See, e.g., L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, Biosens. Bioelectron. 13, 1263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kochergin, V. E.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, Sens. Actuators B 54, 43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, Biosens. Bioelectron. 13, 1263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ksenevich, T. I.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, Sens. Actuators B 54, 43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leiderer, P.

S. Herminghaus and P. Leiderer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 352 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Herminghaus and P. Leiderer, Appl. Phys. A 51, 350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leung, P. T.

H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mar, M. N.

See, e.g., L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P. I.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, Sens. Actuators B 54, 43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, Biosens. Bioelectron. 13, 1263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

Shen, S.

J. Guo, Z. Zhu, W. Deng, and S. Shen, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 37, 2998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Su, S.-Y.

H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valeiko, M. V.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, Sens. Actuators B 54, 43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.-C.

H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-J.

H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

See, e.g., L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, H.-T.

H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

J. Guo, Z. Zhu, W. Deng, and S. Shen, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 37, 2998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

See, e.g., J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A

S. Herminghaus and P. Leiderer, Appl. Phys. A 51, 350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Herminghaus and P. Leiderer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 352 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, Biosens. Bioelectron. 13, 1263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2

B. Chadwick and M. Gal, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 32, 2716 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

See, e.g., L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H.-P. Chiang, H.-T. Yeh, C.-M. Chen, J.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Su, R. Chang, Y.-J. Wu, D. P. Tsai, S. U. Jen, and P. T. Leung, Opt. Commun. 241, 409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham)

J. Guo, Z. Zhu, W. Deng, and S. Shen, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 37, 2998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, Sens. Actuators B 54, 43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of phase detection system. P, polarizer; AN t , analyzer; D t , photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical results: (a) relative phase ( ϕ p ϕ s ) ; (b) the corresponding enhancement factor γ as a function of incidence angle for four different wavelengths of light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results: (a) relative phase ( ϕ p ϕ s ) ; (b) the corresponding enhancement factor γ as a function of incidence angle for the four wavelengths used in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical and experimental results for the maximum enhancement factor γ as a function of incident wavelength.

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