Abstract

The microstructure of a poled surface-relief grating of an azobenzene side-chain polymer film is investigated. From the in situ monitoring of diffraction efficiency and second-harmonic generation, as well as dynamic-contact electrostatic force microscopy images, the point group symmetry of C2v is identified. The polarization-dependent electro-optic measurement of the reflected diffraction order further confirms the optically biaxial structure of the poled surface-relief grating.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimara, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Munakata, K. Harada, H. Anji, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and S. Umegaki, Opt. Lett. 26, 4 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Munakata, K. Harada, Y. Yosikawa, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, Opt. Rev. 6, 518 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. D. Schaller, R. J. Saykally, Y. R. Shen, and F. Lagugné-Labarthet, Opt. Lett. 28, 1296 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Lagugné-Labarthet, J. L. Bruneel, V. Rodriguez, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1267 (2004).
  7. S. H. Han and J. W. Wu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1131 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2654 (1998).
  9. W. Jo, D. C. Kim, and J. W. Hong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 390 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Hong, S.-I. Park, and Z. G. Khim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1735 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

2004 (1)

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, J. L. Bruneel, V. Rodriguez, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1267 (2004).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

W. Jo, D. C. Kim, and J. W. Hong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. W. Hong, S.-I. Park, and Z. G. Khim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1735 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Munakata, K. Harada, Y. Yosikawa, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, Opt. Rev. 6, 518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimara, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2654 (1998).

1997 (1)

Anji, H.

Bruneel, J. L.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, J. L. Bruneel, V. Rodriguez, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1267 (2004).

Buffeteau, T.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2654 (1998).

Che, Y.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimara, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Egami, C.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimara, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujimara, H.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimara, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. H.

Harada, K.

K. Munakata, K. Harada, H. Anji, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and S. Umegaki, Opt. Lett. 26, 4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Munakata, K. Harada, Y. Yosikawa, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, Opt. Rev. 6, 518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J. W.

W. Jo, D. C. Kim, and J. W. Hong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hong, S.-I. Park, and Z. G. Khim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1735 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

K. Munakata, K. Harada, H. Anji, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and S. Umegaki, Opt. Lett. 26, 4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Munakata, K. Harada, Y. Yosikawa, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, Opt. Rev. 6, 518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jo, W.

W. Jo, D. C. Kim, and J. W. Hong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, Y.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimara, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khim, Z. G.

J. W. Hong, S.-I. Park, and Z. G. Khim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1735 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. C.

W. Jo, D. C. Kim, and J. W. Hong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lagugné-Labarthet, F.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, J. L. Bruneel, V. Rodriguez, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1267 (2004).

R. D. Schaller, R. J. Saykally, Y. R. Shen, and F. Lagugné-Labarthet, Opt. Lett. 28, 1296 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2654 (1998).

Martin, G.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Munakata, K.

K. Munakata, K. Harada, H. Anji, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and S. Umegaki, Opt. Lett. 26, 4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Munakata, K. Harada, Y. Yosikawa, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, Opt. Rev. 6, 518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimara, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-I.

J. W. Hong, S.-I. Park, and Z. G. Khim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1735 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, V.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, J. L. Bruneel, V. Rodriguez, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1267 (2004).

Saykally, R. J.

Schaller, R. D.

Shen, Y. R.

Soulier, L.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sourisseau, C.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, J. L. Bruneel, V. Rodriguez, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1267 (2004).

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2654 (1998).

Sugihara, O.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimara, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toussaere, E.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchimori, M.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimara, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Umegaki, S.

K. Munakata, K. Harada, H. Anji, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and S. Umegaki, Opt. Lett. 26, 4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Munakata, K. Harada, Y. Yosikawa, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, Opt. Rev. 6, 518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, O.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimara, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. W.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Yatagai, T.

K. Munakata, K. Harada, H. Anji, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and S. Umegaki, Opt. Lett. 26, 4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Munakata, K. Harada, Y. Yosikawa, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, Opt. Rev. 6, 518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Yosikawa, Y.

K. Munakata, K. Harada, Y. Yosikawa, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, Opt. Rev. 6, 518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Jo, D. C. Kim, and J. W. Hong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2654 (1998).

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, J. L. Bruneel, V. Rodriguez, and C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1267 (2004).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimara, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Munakata, K. Harada, Y. Yosikawa, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, Opt. Rev. 6, 518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. W. Hong, S.-I. Park, and Z. G. Khim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1735 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Met. 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) In situ DE and SHG. (b) How C2v symmetry develops in the poled SRG by a lateral force during the corona poling process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Topological AFM and DC-EFM images of (a) unpoled and (b) poled SRG. (c) Cross-sectional profiles of (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic diagram of experimental setup for the polarization-dependent EO measurement. (b) DE as a function of polarization angle α. (c) EO signal as a function of polarization angle α. In (b) and (c) 0° corresponds to the polarization parallel to the x axis and 90° to the y axis. H.P., half-wave plate.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η±1=r2J±124πλd,
nα=nxnyny2 cos α2+nx2 sin α21/2,
η±1m=4nα4nα2-1Δnα1+nα4J±124πλd,

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