Abstract

We report the design of a tungsten thermal source with extraordinarily high directivity in the near infrared, comparable to the directivity of a CO2 laser. This high directivity is the signature of the long-range correlation of the electromagnetic field in the source plane. This phenomenon is due to the resonant thermal excitation of surface-plasmon polaritons.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (3)

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J. J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai and H. Yugami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3399 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Ben-Abdallah, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Y. Lin, J.-G. Fleming, and I. El-Kady, Opt. Lett. 28, 1909 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Kollyukh, A. I. Liptuga, V. Morozhenko, and V. I. Pipa, Opt. Commun. 225, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

A. Heinzel, V. Boerner, A. Gombert, B. Blsi, V. Wittwer, and J. Luther, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Henkel, K. Joulain, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Opt. Commun. 186, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1660 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreiter, J. Oster, R. Sambles, S. Herminghaus, S. Mittler-Neher, and W. Knoll, Opt. Commun. 168, 117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

1988 (1)

P. J. Hesketh, B. Gebhart, and J. N Zemel, J. Heat Transfer 110, 680 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1979 (1)

P. De Santis, F. Gori, G. Guattari, and C. Palma, Opt. Commun. 29, 256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

Ben-Abdallah, P.

Bertolotti, M.

Blsi, B.

A. Heinzel, V. Boerner, A. Gombert, B. Blsi, V. Wittwer, and J. Luther, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boerner, V.

A. Heinzel, V. Boerner, A. Gombert, B. Blsi, V. Wittwer, and J. Luther, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bulabois, J.

Carminati, R.

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J. J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Henkel, K. Joulain, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Opt. Commun. 186, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1660 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carter, W. H.

Chateau, N.

Chen, Y.

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J. J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colett, E.

E. Wolf and E. Colett, Opt. Commun. 25, 293 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

De Santis, P.

P. De Santis, F. Gori, G. Guattari, and C. Palma, Opt. Commun. 29, 256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dechamps, J.

El-Kady, I.

Fleming, J.-G.

Gebhart, B.

P. J. Hesketh, B. Gebhart, and J. N Zemel, J. Heat Transfer 110, 680 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

A. Heinzel, V. Boerner, A. Gombert, B. Blsi, V. Wittwer, and J. Luther, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gori, F.

P. De Santis, F. Gori, G. Guattari, and C. Palma, Opt. Commun. 29, 256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J. J.

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J. J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Henkel, K. Joulain, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Opt. Commun. 186, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1660 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guattari, G.

P. De Santis, F. Gori, G. Guattari, and C. Palma, Opt. Commun. 29, 256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Heinzel, A.

A. Heinzel, V. Boerner, A. Gombert, B. Blsi, V. Wittwer, and J. Luther, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henkel, C.

C. Henkel, K. Joulain, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Opt. Commun. 186, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herminghaus, S.

M. Kreiter, J. Oster, R. Sambles, S. Herminghaus, S. Mittler-Neher, and W. Knoll, Opt. Commun. 168, 117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hesketh, P. J.

P. J. Hesketh, B. Gebhart, and J. N Zemel, J. Heat Transfer 110, 680 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J.-P.

Joulain, K.

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J. J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Henkel, K. Joulain, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Opt. Commun. 186, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

M. Kreiter, J. Oster, R. Sambles, S. Herminghaus, S. Mittler-Neher, and W. Knoll, Opt. Commun. 168, 117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kollyukh, O. G.

O. G. Kollyukh, A. I. Liptuga, V. Morozhenko, and V. I. Pipa, Opt. Commun. 225, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kreiter, M.

M. Kreiter, J. Oster, R. Sambles, S. Herminghaus, S. Mittler-Neher, and W. Knoll, Opt. Commun. 168, 117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

Liptuga, A. I.

O. G. Kollyukh, A. I. Liptuga, V. Morozhenko, and V. I. Pipa, Opt. Commun. 225, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luther, J.

A. Heinzel, V. Boerner, A. Gombert, B. Blsi, V. Wittwer, and J. Luther, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mainguy, S.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquier, F.

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J. J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mittler-Neher, S.

M. Kreiter, J. Oster, R. Sambles, S. Herminghaus, S. Mittler-Neher, and W. Knoll, Opt. Commun. 168, 117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morozhenko, V.

O. G. Kollyukh, A. I. Liptuga, V. Morozhenko, and V. I. Pipa, Opt. Commun. 225, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mulet, J. P.

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J. J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Oster, J.

M. Kreiter, J. Oster, R. Sambles, S. Herminghaus, S. Mittler-Neher, and W. Knoll, Opt. Commun. 168, 117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Palma, C.

P. De Santis, F. Gori, G. Guattari, and C. Palma, Opt. Commun. 29, 256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pipa, V. I.

O. G. Kollyukh, A. I. Liptuga, V. Morozhenko, and V. I. Pipa, Opt. Commun. 225, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sai, H.

H. Sai and H. Yugami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3399 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, R.

M. Kreiter, J. Oster, R. Sambles, S. Herminghaus, S. Mittler-Neher, and W. Knoll, Opt. Commun. 168, 117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V.

A. Heinzel, V. Boerner, A. Gombert, B. Blsi, V. Wittwer, and J. Luther, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf and E. Colett, Opt. Commun. 25, 293 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, H.

H. Sai and H. Yugami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3399 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zemel, J. N

P. J. Hesketh, B. Gebhart, and J. N Zemel, J. Heat Transfer 110, 680 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Sai and H. Yugami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3399 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Heat Transfer (1)

P. J. Hesketh, B. Gebhart, and J. N Zemel, J. Heat Transfer 110, 680 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Heinzel, V. Boerner, A. Gombert, B. Blsi, V. Wittwer, and J. Luther, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Nature (1)

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (5)

E. Wolf and E. Colett, Opt. Commun. 25, 293 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. De Santis, F. Gori, G. Guattari, and C. Palma, Opt. Commun. 29, 256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. Henkel, K. Joulain, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, Opt. Commun. 186, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kollyukh, A. I. Liptuga, V. Morozhenko, and V. I. Pipa, Opt. Commun. 225, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreiter, J. Oster, R. Sambles, S. Herminghaus, S. Mittler-Neher, and W. Knoll, Opt. Commun. 168, 117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J. J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1660 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope image of the lamellar grating of tungsten with period a = 3 μ m , fill factor F = 0.5 , and depth h = 0.125 μ m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated angular emission pattern for two wavelengths: λ = 4.07 ,  4.53 μ m . The angular peak position ( θ ) is given by ( ω c ) sin θ = k sp + p ( 2 π a ) , where k sp is the dispersion relation of the surface wave.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Degree of coherence of the z component of the electric field at a distance z = 0.05 λ over a flat interface of tungsten versus ρ λ , the normalized lateral separation between two points for two wavelengths: λ = 0.5 μ m , where no surface-plasmon polaritons exist, and λ = 4.53 μ m .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured emissivity spectrum in polar coordinates for two near-infrared wavelengths λ = 4.07 ,  4.53 μ m . The sample was heated to temperature T = 623 K .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Zoom of the emission pattern for wavelength λ = 4.53 μ m . The FWHM of this thermal source is 15.7 mrad, which is only twice the FWHM of a CO 2 laser, typically 7 mrad.

Equations (1)

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W z z ( ρ , λ ) = E z ( r , λ ) E z * ( r + ρ , λ ) ,

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