Abstract

We report an optical tweezers based approach for efficient and controlled manipulation of neuronal growth cones. The approach exploits asymmetric transverse gradient force created in a line optical tweezers to transport actin monomers in the desired growth direction. With this approach induction of artificial growth cones from the neuronal cell body and enhancement of the growth rate of the natural growth cones have been achieved. The use of this approach to bring two growth cones into close proximity for establishing a neuronal connection is also discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Fawcett, Spinal Cord 40, 615 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16024 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. K. Mueller, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22, 351 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Ming, S. T. Wong, J. Henley, X. Yuan, H. Song, N. C. Spitzer, and M. Poo, Nature 417, 411 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Liesfeld, R. Nambiar, and J. C. Meiners, Phys. Rev. E 68, 051907 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. G. Borisy and T. M. Svitkina, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 12, 104 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 68, 2137 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. T. M. Gomez and N. C. Spitzer, J. Neurobiol. 44, 174 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

B. Liesfeld, R. Nambiar, and J. C. Meiners, Phys. Rev. E 68, 051907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dasgupta, S. K. Mohanty, and P. K. Gupta, Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. Fawcett, Spinal Cord 40, 615 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ming, S. T. Wong, J. Henley, X. Yuan, H. Song, N. C. Spitzer, and M. Poo, Nature 417, 411 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. S. Niranjan, J. G. Forbes, S. C. Greer, J. Dudowicz, K. F. Freed, and J. F. Douglas, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 10573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. M. Gomez and N. C. Spitzer, J. Neurobiol. 44, 174 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Borisy and T. M. Svitkina, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 12, 104 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

B. K. Mueller, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22, 351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 68, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 68, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betz, T.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borisy, G. G.

G. G. Borisy and T. M. Svitkina, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 12, 104 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, C. F.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 68, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, D. K.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 68, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasgupta, R.

R. Dasgupta, S. K. Mohanty, and P. K. Gupta, Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douglas, J. F.

P. S. Niranjan, J. G. Forbes, S. C. Greer, J. Dudowicz, K. F. Freed, and J. F. Douglas, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 10573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dudowicz, J.

P. S. Niranjan, J. G. Forbes, S. C. Greer, J. Dudowicz, K. F. Freed, and J. F. Douglas, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 10573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlicher, A.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fawcett, J.

J. Fawcett, Spinal Cord 40, 615 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forbes, J. G.

P. S. Niranjan, J. G. Forbes, S. C. Greer, J. Dudowicz, K. F. Freed, and J. F. Douglas, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 10573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Freed, K. F.

P. S. Niranjan, J. G. Forbes, S. C. Greer, J. Dudowicz, K. F. Freed, and J. F. Douglas, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 10573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, T. M.

T. M. Gomez and N. C. Spitzer, J. Neurobiol. 44, 174 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greer, S. C.

P. S. Niranjan, J. G. Forbes, S. C. Greer, J. Dudowicz, K. F. Freed, and J. F. Douglas, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 10573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P. K.

R. Dasgupta, S. K. Mohanty, and P. K. Gupta, Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henley, J.

G. Ming, S. T. Wong, J. Henley, X. Yuan, H. Song, N. C. Spitzer, and M. Poo, Nature 417, 411 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kas, J.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koch, D.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liesfeld, B.

B. Liesfeld, R. Nambiar, and J. C. Meiners, Phys. Rev. E 68, 051907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 68, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meiners, J. C.

B. Liesfeld, R. Nambiar, and J. C. Meiners, Phys. Rev. E 68, 051907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Milner, V.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ming, G.

G. Ming, S. T. Wong, J. Henley, X. Yuan, H. Song, N. C. Spitzer, and M. Poo, Nature 417, 411 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohanty, S. K.

R. Dasgupta, S. K. Mohanty, and P. K. Gupta, Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mueller, B. K.

B. K. Mueller, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22, 351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nambiar, R.

B. Liesfeld, R. Nambiar, and J. C. Meiners, Phys. Rev. E 68, 051907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niranjan, P. S.

P. S. Niranjan, J. G. Forbes, S. C. Greer, J. Dudowicz, K. F. Freed, and J. F. Douglas, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 10573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Poo, M.

G. Ming, S. T. Wong, J. Henley, X. Yuan, H. Song, N. C. Spitzer, and M. Poo, Nature 417, 411 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raizen, M. G.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sonek, G. J.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 68, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H.

G. Ming, S. T. Wong, J. Henley, X. Yuan, H. Song, N. C. Spitzer, and M. Poo, Nature 417, 411 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spitzer, N. C.

G. Ming, S. T. Wong, J. Henley, X. Yuan, H. Song, N. C. Spitzer, and M. Poo, Nature 417, 411 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Gomez and N. C. Spitzer, J. Neurobiol. 44, 174 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuhrmann, B.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Svitkina, T. M.

G. G. Borisy and T. M. Svitkina, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 12, 104 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 68, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, S. T.

G. Ming, S. T. Wong, J. Henley, X. Yuan, H. Song, N. C. Spitzer, and M. Poo, Nature 417, 411 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, X.

G. Ming, S. T. Wong, J. Henley, X. Yuan, H. Song, N. C. Spitzer, and M. Poo, Nature 417, 411 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

B. K. Mueller, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22, 351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 68, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biotechnol. Lett. (1)

R. Dasgupta, S. K. Mohanty, and P. K. Gupta, Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1)

G. G. Borisy and T. M. Svitkina, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 12, 104 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. S. Niranjan, J. G. Forbes, S. C. Greer, J. Dudowicz, K. F. Freed, and J. F. Douglas, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 10573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurobiol. (1)

T. M. Gomez and N. C. Spitzer, J. Neurobiol. 44, 174 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

G. Ming, S. T. Wong, J. Henley, X. Yuan, H. Song, N. C. Spitzer, and M. Poo, Nature 417, 411 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

B. Liesfeld, R. Nambiar, and J. C. Meiners, Phys. Rev. E 68, 051907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spinal Cord (1)

J. Fawcett, Spinal Cord 40, 615 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the principle of transport of microscopic objects with an asymmetric intensity profile trap beam. See text for explanation of a–d.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-lapse images of a growth cone subjected to asymmetric gradient force (trap beam power 120 mW ). The time interval between successive frames is 5 min . The arrow in a indicates the direction of asymmetric gradient force, and its length equals the length of the line trap. All images are at the same magnification. Scale bar 20 μ m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical induction of a new neuronal growth cone. A neuronal cell subjected to asymmetric gradient force (trap beam power 120 mW ) in the direction marked by the arrow (a). Induction of a new growth cone (shown encircled) after (b) 20, (c) 25, and (d) 45 min of exposure. Natural branching of the induced growth cone can be observed after 45 min of exposure (d). All images are at the same magnification. Scale bar 20 μ m .

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